3d spin-orbit photoemission spectrum of nonferromagnetic materials: The test cases of CoO and Cu

G. Ghiringhelli, G. Ghiringhelli, L. H. Tjeng, L. H. Tjeng, A. Tanaka, O. Tjernberg, O. Tjernberg, T. Mizokawa, T. Mizokawa, J. L. de Boer, N. B. Brookes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


The x-ray photoemission spectrum of the valence states of 3d transition-metal systems is spin polarized when using circularly polarized photons. The integral of the spin-orbit spectrum is proportional to the expectation value of the angular part of the 3d spin-orbit operator in the initial state. We show that this quantity can be used to get an estimate of the atomic orbital moment. While the measurement is sensitive to the magnetization axis, it does not require a net macroscopic magnetization nor the presence of a long-range magnetic order, and is therefore suitable for any transition-metal systems being antiferromagnetic or paramagnetic or magnetically disordered. In the case of full 3d shell the integral of the spin-orbit spectrum is zero, but the spectral shape can give a direct estimate of the 3d spin-orbit energy splitting ΔESO. We have used Cu and CoO to experimentally test this technique. As expected Cu provides a vanishing result for (Lz), whereas for Co2+ in CoO we find (Lz) = 1.36ℏ at 0 K. On the other hand we find ΔESO≃280 meV for Cu.

Original languageEnglish
Article number075101
Pages (from-to)751011-751017
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Aug 15
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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