A 373-F 0.21%-Native-BER EE SRAM Physically Unclonable Function with 2-D Power-Gated Bit Cells and {V}_{\text{SS}} Bias-Based Dark-Bit Detection

Kunyang Liu, Yue Min, Xuan Yang, Hanfeng Sun, Hirofumi Shinohara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This article presents a highly stable SRAM-based physically unclonable function (PUF) using enhancement-enhancement (EE)-structure bit cells for native stability improvement. The PUF bit cells are power-gated 2-D and are normally in the OFF state, which largely reduces power and is beneficial to attack tolerance. In addition, a dark-bit detection technique based on a lightweight integrated {V}_{\text {SS}} -bias generator is implemented in order to screen out potentially unstable bit cells (dark bits) induced by supply voltage/temperature (VT) variations and other factors. Measured native bit error rate (BER) of prototype chips fabricated in 130-nm standard CMOS is 0.21% at 0.8 V and 23 °C, which is 14 \times better compared with the conventional SRAM-based PUF. After masking the detected dark bits, no bit error (3339 bits \times 500 evaluations) appeared at the worst VT corner across 0.8 to 1.4 V and -40 °C to 120 °C. This technique also eliminated all unstable bits in the accelerated aging test. Both the data before and after dark-bit masking have passed all applicable NIST SP 800-22 randomness tests. The measured operational energy at 0.8 V is 128 fJ/bit and the standby power is 0.44 pW/bit, thanks to the 2-D power-gating scheme. The nMOS-only bit cell is highly compact, with a normalized bit cell area of 373 F 2

Original languageEnglish
Article number8957039
Pages (from-to)1719-1732
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume55
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun

Keywords

  • Dark-bit masking
  • enhancement-enhancement (EE) SRAM
  • hardware security
  • Internet-of-Things (IoT)
  • physically unclonable function (PUF)
  • power gating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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