A 45-nm 37.3 GOPS/W heterogeneous multi-core SOC with 16/32 bit instruction-set general-purpose core

Osamu Nishii, Yoichi Yuyama, Masayuki Ito, Yoshikazu Kiyoshige, Yusuke Nitta, Makoto Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamada, Junichi Miyakoshi, Yasutaka Wada, Keiji Kimura, Hironori Kasahara, Hideo Maejima

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    We built a 12.4mm× 12.4mm, 45-nm CMOS, chip that integrates eight 648-MHz general purpose cores, two matrix processor (MX-2) cores, four flexible engine (FE) cores and media IP (VPU5) to establish heterogeneous multi-core chip architecture. The general purpose core had its IPC (instructions per cycle) performance enhanced by adding 32-bit instructions to the existing 16-bit fixed-length instruction set and executing up to two 32-bit instructions per cycle. Considering these five-toseven years of embedded LSI and increasing trend of access-master within LSI, we predict that the memory usage of single core will not exceed 32-bit physical area (i.e. 4 GB), but chip-total memory usage will exceed 4GB. Based on this prediction, the physical address was expanded from 32-bit to 40-bit. The fabricated chip was tested and a parallel operation of eight general purpose cores and four FE cores and eight data transfer units (DTU) is obtained on AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) encode processing.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)663-669
    Number of pages7
    JournalIEICE Transactions on Electronics
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2011 Apr



    • Heterogeneous
    • Instruction set
    • MMU

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

    Cite this

    Nishii, O., Yuyama, Y., Ito, M., Kiyoshige, Y., Nitta, Y., Ishikawa, M., Yamada, T., Miyakoshi, J., Wada, Y., Kimura, K., Kasahara, H., & Maejima, H. (2011). A 45-nm 37.3 GOPS/W heterogeneous multi-core SOC with 16/32 bit instruction-set general-purpose core. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, E94-C(4), 663-669. https://doi.org/10.1587/transele.E94.C.663