A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble

M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. CaliandroR. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, M. Pohl, D. Prokhorov, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, P. M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, P. Spinelli, A. W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. G. Thayer, J. B. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer, S. Bontemps

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    Abstract

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1103-1107
    Number of pages5
    JournalScience
    Volume334
    Issue number6059
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov 25

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    ASJC Scopus subject areas

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    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., ... Bontemps, S. (2011). A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble. Science, 334(6059), 1103-1107. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210311