A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble

M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro & 115 others R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, M. Pohl, D. Prokhorov, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, P. M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, P. Spinelli, A. W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. G. Thayer, J. B. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer, S. Bontemps

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    148 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1103-1107
    Number of pages5
    JournalScience
    Volume334
    Issue number6059
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov 25

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    Telescopes
    Oil and Gas Fields
    Gamma Rays
    Shock
    Radiation
    Population

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

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    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., ... Bontemps, S. (2011). A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble. Science, 334(6059), 1103-1107. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210311

    A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble. / Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pohl, M.; Prokhorov, D.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.; Bontemps, S.

    In: Science, Vol. 334, No. 6059, 25.11.2011, p. 1103-1107.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Allafort, A, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Belfiore, A, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bottacini, E, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Casandjian, JM, Cecchi, C, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Dermer, CD, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dumora, D, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Focke, WB, Fortin, P, Fukazawa, Y, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Guillemot, L, Guiriec, S, Hadasch, D, Hanabata, Y, Harding, AK, Hayashida, M, Hayashi, K, Hays, E, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Kerr, M, Knödlseder, J, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Latronico, L, Lee, SH, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Martin, P, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Mehault, J, Michelson, PF, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Naumann-Godo, M, Nolan, PL, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Okumura, A, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Ozaki, M, Paneque, D, Parent, D, Pesce-Rollins, M, Pierbattista, M, Piron, F, Pohl, M, Prokhorov, D, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Reposeur, T, Ritz, S, Saz Parkinson, PM, Sgrò, C, Siskind, EJ, Smith, PD, Spinelli, P, Strong, AW, Takahashi, H, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JG, Thayer, JB, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Troja, E, Uchiyama, Y, Vandenbroucke, J, Vasileiou, V, Vianello, G, Vitale, V, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Yang, Z, Zimmer, S & Bontemps, S 2011, 'A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble', Science, vol. 334, no. 6059, pp. 1103-1107. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210311
    Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A, Baldini L, Ballet J, Barbiellini G et al. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble. Science. 2011 Nov 25;334(6059):1103-1107. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210311
    Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Allafort, A. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Belfiore, A. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bottacini, E. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cecchi, C. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Dermer, C. D. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dumora, D. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Focke, W. B. ; Fortin, P. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guillemot, L. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hanabata, Y. ; Harding, A. K. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hays, E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Kerr, M. ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Latronico, L. ; Lee, S. H. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Martin, P. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Mehault, J. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Naumann-Godo, M. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Okumura, A. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Ozaki, M. ; Paneque, D. ; Parent, D. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Pierbattista, M. ; Piron, F. ; Pohl, M. ; Prokhorov, D. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Reposeur, T. ; Ritz, S. ; Saz Parkinson, P. M. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spinelli, P. ; Strong, A. W. ; Takahashi, H. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Troja, E. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Vianello, G. ; Vitale, V. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Yang, Z. ; Zimmer, S. ; Bontemps, S. / A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble. In: Science. 2011 ; Vol. 334, No. 6059. pp. 1103-1107.
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    title = "A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble",
    abstract = "The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.",
    author = "M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and A. Allafort and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and D. Bastieri and A. Belfiore and R. Bellazzini and B. Berenji and Blandford, {R. D.} and Bloom, {E. D.} and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and E. Bottacini and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and R. Buehler and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and Caraveo, {P. A.} and Casandjian, {J. M.} and C. Cecchi and A. Chekhtman and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Palma}, F. and Dermer, {C. D.} and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and D. Dumora and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and Focke, {W. B.} and P. Fortin and Y. Fukazawa and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and S. Germani and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and M. Giroletti and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and Grenier, {I. A.} and L. Guillemot and S. Guiriec and D. Hadasch and Y. Hanabata and Harding, {A. K.} and M. Hayashida and K. Hayashi and E. Hays and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and M. Kerr and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and M. Kuss and J. Lande and L. Latronico and Lee, {S. H.} and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and P. Martin and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and McEnery, {J. E.} and J. Mehault and Michelson, {P. F.} and W. Mitthumsiri and T. Mizuno and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and M. Naumann-Godo and Nolan, {P. L.} and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and T. Ohsugi and A. Okumura and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and M. Ozaki and D. Paneque and D. Parent and M. Pesce-Rollins and M. Pierbattista and F. Piron and M. Pohl and D. Prokhorov and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and T. Reposeur and S. Ritz and {Saz Parkinson}, {P. M.} and C. Sgr{\`o} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {P. D.} and P. Spinelli and Strong, {A. W.} and H. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and E. Troja and Y. Uchiyama and J. Vandenbroucke and V. Vasileiou and G. Vianello and V. Vitale and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and Z. Yang and S. Zimmer and S. Bontemps",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Allafort, A.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Belfiore, A.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Blandford, R. D.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bottacini, E.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Dumora, D.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Focke, W. B.

    AU - Fortin, P.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giroletti, M.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Guillemot, L.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Hanabata, Y.

    AU - Harding, A. K.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hayashi, K.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Katagiri, H.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Kerr, M.

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Lee, S. H.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lott, B.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Martin, P.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Mehault, J.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mitthumsiri, W.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Naumann-Godo, M.

    AU - Nolan, P. L.

    AU - Norris, J. P.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Okumura, A.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Ozaki, M.

    AU - Paneque, D.

    AU - Parent, D.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Pierbattista, M.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Pohl, M.

    AU - Prokhorov, D.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Reposeur, T.

    AU - Ritz, S.

    AU - Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Smith, P. D.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Strong, A. W.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Thayer, J. G.

    AU - Thayer, J. B.

    AU - Thompson, D. J.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Tosti, G.

    AU - Tramacere, A.

    AU - Troja, E.

    AU - Uchiyama, Y.

    AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

    AU - Vasileiou, V.

    AU - Vianello, G.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Waite, A. P.

    AU - Wang, P.

    AU - Winer, B. L.

    AU - Wood, K. S.

    AU - Yang, Z.

    AU - Zimmer, S.

    AU - Bontemps, S.

    PY - 2011/11/25

    Y1 - 2011/11/25

    N2 - The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

    AB - The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

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    U2 - 10.1126/science.1210311

    DO - 10.1126/science.1210311

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