A comparison of optimal operation of a residential fuel cell co-generation system using clustered demand patterns based on Kullback-Leibler divergence

Akira Yoshida, Yoshiharu Amano, Noboru Murata, Koichi Ito, Takumi Hasizume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)


When evaluating residential energy systems like co-generation systems, hot water and electricity demand profiles are critical. In this paper, the authors aim to extract basic time-series demand patterns from two kinds of measured demand (electricity and domestic hot water), and also aim to reveal effective demand patterns for primary energy saving. Time-series demand data are categorized with a hierarchical clustering method using a statistical pseudo-distance, which is represented by the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence of two Gaussian mixture distributions. The classified demand patterns are built using hierarchical clustering and then a comparison is made between the optimal operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell co-generation system and the operation of a reference system (a conventional combination of a condensing gas boiler and electricity purchased from the grid) using the appropriately built demand profiles. Our results show that basic demand patterns are extracted by the proposed method, and the heat-to-power ratio of demand, the amount of daily demand, and demand patterns affect the primary energy saving of the co-generation system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-399
Number of pages26
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan



  • Co-generation
  • Demand pattern
  • Gaussian mixture model
  • Hierarchical clustering
  • KL-divergence
  • Optimal operation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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