A hardware-trojans identifying method based on trojan net scoring at gate-level netlists

Masaru Oya, Youhua Shi, Noritaka Yamashita, Toshihiko Okamura, Yukiyasu Tsunoo, Satoshi Goto, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Outsourcing IC design and fabrication is one of the effective solutions to reduce design cost but it may cause severe security risks. Particularly, malicious outside vendors may implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on ICs. When we focus on IC design phase, we cannot assume an HT-free netlist or a Golden netlist and it is too difficult to identify whether a given netlist is HT-free or not. In this paper, we propose a score-based hardware-trojans identifying method at gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Our proposed method does not directly detect HTs themselves in a gate-level netlist but it detects a net included in HTs, which is called Trojan net, instead. Firstly, we observe Trojan nets from several HT-inserted benchmarks and extract several their features. Secondly, we give scores to extracted Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to classify HTfree and HT-inserted netlists. Based on these scores, we can successfully classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists in all the Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks and ISCAS85 benchmarks as well as HT-free and HT-inserted AES gate-level netlists. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be "HTinserted" and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-free" in approximately three hours for each benchmark.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2537-2546
    Number of pages10
    JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    VolumeE98A
    Issue number12
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015 Dec 1

    Fingerprint

    Scoring
    Hardware
    Benchmark
    Classify
    Outsourcing
    Fabrication

    Keywords

    • Classification
    • Gate-level netlist
    • Golden-IC free
    • Hardware trojans
    • Identification

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
    • Applied Mathematics
    • Signal Processing

    Cite this

    A hardware-trojans identifying method based on trojan net scoring at gate-level netlists. / Oya, Masaru; Shi, Youhua; Yamashita, Noritaka; Okamura, Toshihiko; Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Goto, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Masao; Togawa, Nozomu.

    In: IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, Vol. E98A, No. 12, 01.12.2015, p. 2537-2546.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    @article{c86233ca941145b1aa17b3a68dce65a7,
    title = "A hardware-trojans identifying method based on trojan net scoring at gate-level netlists",
    abstract = "Outsourcing IC design and fabrication is one of the effective solutions to reduce design cost but it may cause severe security risks. Particularly, malicious outside vendors may implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on ICs. When we focus on IC design phase, we cannot assume an HT-free netlist or a Golden netlist and it is too difficult to identify whether a given netlist is HT-free or not. In this paper, we propose a score-based hardware-trojans identifying method at gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Our proposed method does not directly detect HTs themselves in a gate-level netlist but it detects a net included in HTs, which is called Trojan net, instead. Firstly, we observe Trojan nets from several HT-inserted benchmarks and extract several their features. Secondly, we give scores to extracted Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to classify HTfree and HT-inserted netlists. Based on these scores, we can successfully classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists in all the Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks and ISCAS85 benchmarks as well as HT-free and HT-inserted AES gate-level netlists. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be {"}HTinserted{"} and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be {"}HT-free{"} in approximately three hours for each benchmark.",
    keywords = "Classification, Gate-level netlist, Golden-IC free, Hardware trojans, Identification",
    author = "Masaru Oya and Youhua Shi and Noritaka Yamashita and Toshihiko Okamura and Yukiyasu Tsunoo and Satoshi Goto and Masao Yanagisawa and Nozomu Togawa",
    year = "2015",
    month = "12",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1587/transfun.E98.A.2537",
    language = "English",
    volume = "E98A",
    pages = "2537--2546",
    journal = "IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences",
    issn = "0916-8508",
    publisher = "Maruzen Co., Ltd/Maruzen Kabushikikaisha",
    number = "12",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A hardware-trojans identifying method based on trojan net scoring at gate-level netlists

    AU - Oya, Masaru

    AU - Shi, Youhua

    AU - Yamashita, Noritaka

    AU - Okamura, Toshihiko

    AU - Tsunoo, Yukiyasu

    AU - Goto, Satoshi

    AU - Yanagisawa, Masao

    AU - Togawa, Nozomu

    PY - 2015/12/1

    Y1 - 2015/12/1

    N2 - Outsourcing IC design and fabrication is one of the effective solutions to reduce design cost but it may cause severe security risks. Particularly, malicious outside vendors may implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on ICs. When we focus on IC design phase, we cannot assume an HT-free netlist or a Golden netlist and it is too difficult to identify whether a given netlist is HT-free or not. In this paper, we propose a score-based hardware-trojans identifying method at gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Our proposed method does not directly detect HTs themselves in a gate-level netlist but it detects a net included in HTs, which is called Trojan net, instead. Firstly, we observe Trojan nets from several HT-inserted benchmarks and extract several their features. Secondly, we give scores to extracted Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to classify HTfree and HT-inserted netlists. Based on these scores, we can successfully classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists in all the Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks and ISCAS85 benchmarks as well as HT-free and HT-inserted AES gate-level netlists. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be "HTinserted" and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-free" in approximately three hours for each benchmark.

    AB - Outsourcing IC design and fabrication is one of the effective solutions to reduce design cost but it may cause severe security risks. Particularly, malicious outside vendors may implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on ICs. When we focus on IC design phase, we cannot assume an HT-free netlist or a Golden netlist and it is too difficult to identify whether a given netlist is HT-free or not. In this paper, we propose a score-based hardware-trojans identifying method at gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Our proposed method does not directly detect HTs themselves in a gate-level netlist but it detects a net included in HTs, which is called Trojan net, instead. Firstly, we observe Trojan nets from several HT-inserted benchmarks and extract several their features. Secondly, we give scores to extracted Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to classify HTfree and HT-inserted netlists. Based on these scores, we can successfully classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists in all the Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks and ISCAS85 benchmarks as well as HT-free and HT-inserted AES gate-level netlists. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be "HTinserted" and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-free" in approximately three hours for each benchmark.

    KW - Classification

    KW - Gate-level netlist

    KW - Golden-IC free

    KW - Hardware trojans

    KW - Identification

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84948697847&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84948697847&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1587/transfun.E98.A.2537

    DO - 10.1587/transfun.E98.A.2537

    M3 - Article

    VL - E98A

    SP - 2537

    EP - 2546

    JO - IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences

    JF - IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences

    SN - 0916-8508

    IS - 12

    ER -