A Modified Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (MAPAF) for analyzing decentralized forest governance: Case study from Ethiopia

Abrar Juhar Mohammed, Makoto Inoue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper posits a Modified Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (MAPAF) that makes three major improvements on the Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (APAF) developed by Agrawal and Ribot (1999). These improvements emphasize the nature of decentralized property rights, linking the outputs of decentralization with its outcomes and the inclusion of contextual factors. Applying MAPAF to analyze outputs and outcomes from two major decentralized forest policies in Ethiopia, i.e., delegation and devolution, has demonstrated the following strengths of the framework. First, by incorporating vital bundles of property rights into APAF, MAPAF creates a common ground for exploring and comparing the extent of democratization achieved by different decentralizing reforms. Second, the inclusion of social and environmental outcomes in MAPAF makes it possible to link the output of decentralization with local level outcomes. Finally, the addition of contextual factors enhances MAPAF's explanatory power by providing room for investigating exogenous factors other than democratization that contribute to the outcomes of decentralization reforms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-199
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun 15
Externally publishedYes



  • Decentralization
  • Delegation
  • Devolution
  • Environmental outcome
  • Ethiopia
  • Social outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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