A simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm for fpgas with path delay constraints

Nozomu Togawa, Masao Sato, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

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    In this paper, we propose a new FPGA design algorithm, Maple-opt, in which technology mapping, placement, and global routing are executed so that the delay of each critical signal path in an input circuit is within a specified upper bound imposed on it. The basic algorithm of Maple-opt is top-down hierarchical bi-partitioning of regions. Technology mapping onto logic-blocks of FPGAs, their placement, and global routing are determined simultaneously in each hierarchical process. This simultaneity leads to less congested layout for routing. In addition to that, Maple-opt computes a lower bound of delay for each path with a constraint value and determines critical paths based on the difference between the lower bound and the constraint value dynamically in each hierarchical process. Two delay reduction processes are executed for the critical paths; one is routing delay reduction and the other is logic-block delay reduction. Routing delay reduction is realized such that, when bi-partitioning a region, each constrained path is assigned to one subregion. Logic-block delay reduction is realized such that each constrained path is mapped onto fewer logic-blocks. Experimental results for some benchmark circuits show its efficiency and effectiveness.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)321-329
    Number of pages9
    JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 1996



    • FPGA
    • Layout
    • Path delay
    • Performance optimization
    • Technology mapping

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Hardware and Architecture
    • Information Systems

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