Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array

M. Amenomori, S. Ayabe, D. Chen, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, X. H. Ding, C. F. Feng, Z. Y. Feng, X. Y. Gao, Q. X. Geng, H. W. Guo, H. H. He, M. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. Hu, J. Huang, Q. Huang & 58 others H. Y. Jia, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, Labaciren, G. M. Le, J. Y. Li, H. Lu, S. L. Lu, X. R. Meng, K. Mizutani, J. Mu, K. Munakata, A. Nagai, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, H. Onuma, T. Ouchi, Shunsuke Ozawa, J. R. Ren, T. Saito, M. Sakata, T. Sasaki, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. G. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, C. T. Yan, X. C. Yang, S. Yasue, Z. H. Ye, G. C. Yu, A. F. Yuan, T. Yuda, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, N. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Tibet air shower array has been in operation since 1999 as Tibet III with an energy threshold of a few TeV. As primary cosmic rays are shielded by the Moon having the finite size of 0.5° in diameter, we observe a deficit in cosmic rays called the Moon's shadow with a significance of 40 α level for 1041 live days. The center of the Moon's shadow shifts westward depending on primary cosmic-ray energies due to the geomagnetic field. We calibrate the absolute energy scale of the primary cosmic rays observed by the Tibet III array using this effect. The Moon's shadow simulation, including a precise calculation of the geomagnetic effect, shows a good agreement with observational data. As a result, the systematic error in the absolute energy scale is estimated to be less than approximately ± 8% level by means of the geomagnetic field as a spectrometer.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005
    PublisherTata Institute of Fundamental Research
    Pages53-56
    Number of pages4
    Volume6
    Publication statusPublished - 2005
    Event29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005 - Pune
    Duration: 2005 Aug 32005 Aug 10

    Other

    Other29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005
    CityPune
    Period05/8/305/8/10

    Fingerprint

    Tibet
    cosmic ray showers
    moon
    primary cosmic rays
    cosmic rays
    geomagnetism
    energy
    magnetic effects
    systematic errors
    spectrometers
    thresholds
    shift
    simulation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

    Cite this

    Amenomori, M., Ayabe, S., Chen, D., Cui, S. W., Danzengluobu, Ding, L. K., ... Zhou, X. X. (2005). Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array. In 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005 (Vol. 6, pp. 53-56). Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.

    Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array. / Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005. Vol. 6 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 2005. p. 53-56.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Amenomori, M, Ayabe, S, Chen, D, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Ding, XH, Feng, CF, Feng, ZY, Gao, XY, Geng, QX, Guo, HW, He, HH, He, M, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Huang, Q, Jia, HY, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Labaciren, Le, GM, Li, JY, Lu, H, Lu, SL, Meng, XR, Mizutani, K, Mu, J, Munakata, K, Nagai, A, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Onuma, H, Ouchi, T, Ozawa, S, Ren, JR, Saito, T, Sakata, M, Sasaki, T, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Wang, H, Wang, X, Wang, YG, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yan, CT, Yang, XC, Yasue, S, Ye, ZH, Yu, GC, Yuan, AF, Yuda, T, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, NJ, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2005, Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array. in 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005. vol. 6, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, pp. 53-56, 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005, Pune, 05/8/3.
    Amenomori M, Ayabe S, Chen D, Cui SW, Danzengluobu, Ding LK et al. Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array. In 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005. Vol. 6. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. 2005. p. 53-56
    Amenomori, M. ; Ayabe, S. ; Chen, D. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Ding, X. H. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gao, X. Y. ; Geng, Q. X. ; Guo, H. W. ; He, H. H. ; He, M. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Huang, Q. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Labaciren ; Le, G. M. ; Li, J. Y. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, S. L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mizutani, K. ; Mu, J. ; Munakata, K. ; Nagai, A. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Onuma, H. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. ; Sakata, M. ; Sasaki, T. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. G. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yan, C. T. ; Yang, X. C. ; Yasue, S. ; Ye, Z. H. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, N. J. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array. 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005. Vol. 6 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 2005. pp. 53-56
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    title = "Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array",
    abstract = "The Tibet air shower array has been in operation since 1999 as Tibet III with an energy threshold of a few TeV. As primary cosmic rays are shielded by the Moon having the finite size of 0.5° in diameter, we observe a deficit in cosmic rays called the Moon's shadow with a significance of 40 α level for 1041 live days. The center of the Moon's shadow shifts westward depending on primary cosmic-ray energies due to the geomagnetic field. We calibrate the absolute energy scale of the primary cosmic rays observed by the Tibet III array using this effect. The Moon's shadow simulation, including a precise calculation of the geomagnetic effect, shows a good agreement with observational data. As a result, the systematic error in the absolute energy scale is estimated to be less than approximately ± 8{\%} level by means of the geomagnetic field as a spectrometer.",
    author = "M. Amenomori and S. Ayabe and D. Chen and Cui, {S. W.} and Danzengluobu and Ding, {L. K.} and Ding, {X. H.} and Feng, {C. F.} and Feng, {Z. Y.} and Gao, {X. Y.} and Geng, {Q. X.} and Guo, {H. W.} and He, {H. H.} and M. He and K. Hibino and N. Hotta and Haibing Hu and Hu, {H. B.} and J. Huang and Q. Huang and Jia, {H. Y.} and F. Kajino and K. Kasahara and Y. Katayose and C. Kato and K. Kawata and Labaciren and Le, {G. M.} and Li, {J. Y.} and H. Lu and Lu, {S. L.} and Meng, {X. R.} and K. Mizutani and J. Mu and K. Munakata and A. Nagai and H. Nanjo and M. Nishizawa and M. Ohnishi and I. Ohta and H. Onuma and T. Ouchi and Shunsuke Ozawa and Ren, {J. R.} and T. Saito and M. Sakata and T. Sasaki and M. Shibata and A. Shiomi and T. Shirai and H. Sugimoto and M. Takita and Tan, {Y. H.} and N. Tateyama and Shoji Torii and H. Tsuchiya and S. Udo and H. Wang and X. Wang and Wang, {Y. G.} and Wu, {H. R.} and L. Xue and Y. Yamamoto and Yan, {C. T.} and Yang, {X. C.} and S. Yasue and Ye, {Z. H.} and Yu, {G. C.} and Yuan, {A. F.} and T. Yuda and Zhang, {H. M.} and Zhang, {J. L.} and Zhang, {N. J.} and Zhang, {X. Y.} and Y. Zhang and Yi Zhang and Zhaxisangzhu and Zhou, {X. X.}",
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    language = "English",
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    pages = "53--56",
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    TY - GEN

    T1 - Absolute energy scale calibration of multi-TeV cosmic rays using the moon's shadow observed by the Tibet air shower array

    AU - Amenomori, M.

    AU - Ayabe, S.

    AU - Chen, D.

    AU - Cui, S. W.

    AU - Danzengluobu,

    AU - Ding, L. K.

    AU - Ding, X. H.

    AU - Feng, C. F.

    AU - Feng, Z. Y.

    AU - Gao, X. Y.

    AU - Geng, Q. X.

    AU - Guo, H. W.

    AU - He, H. H.

    AU - He, M.

    AU - Hibino, K.

    AU - Hotta, N.

    AU - Hu, Haibing

    AU - Hu, H. B.

    AU - Huang, J.

    AU - Huang, Q.

    AU - Jia, H. Y.

    AU - Kajino, F.

    AU - Kasahara, K.

    AU - Katayose, Y.

    AU - Kato, C.

    AU - Kawata, K.

    AU - Labaciren,

    AU - Le, G. M.

    AU - Li, J. Y.

    AU - Lu, H.

    AU - Lu, S. L.

    AU - Meng, X. R.

    AU - Mizutani, K.

    AU - Mu, J.

    AU - Munakata, K.

    AU - Nagai, A.

    AU - Nanjo, H.

    AU - Nishizawa, M.

    AU - Ohnishi, M.

    AU - Ohta, I.

    AU - Onuma, H.

    AU - Ouchi, T.

    AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

    AU - Ren, J. R.

    AU - Saito, T.

    AU - Sakata, M.

    AU - Sasaki, T.

    AU - Shibata, M.

    AU - Shiomi, A.

    AU - Shirai, T.

    AU - Sugimoto, H.

    AU - Takita, M.

    AU - Tan, Y. H.

    AU - Tateyama, N.

    AU - Torii, Shoji

    AU - Tsuchiya, H.

    AU - Udo, S.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Wang, X.

    AU - Wang, Y. G.

    AU - Wu, H. R.

    AU - Xue, L.

    AU - Yamamoto, Y.

    AU - Yan, C. T.

    AU - Yang, X. C.

    AU - Yasue, S.

    AU - Ye, Z. H.

    AU - Yu, G. C.

    AU - Yuan, A. F.

    AU - Yuda, T.

    AU - Zhang, H. M.

    AU - Zhang, J. L.

    AU - Zhang, N. J.

    AU - Zhang, X. Y.

    AU - Zhang, Y.

    AU - Zhang, Yi

    AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

    AU - Zhou, X. X.

    PY - 2005

    Y1 - 2005

    N2 - The Tibet air shower array has been in operation since 1999 as Tibet III with an energy threshold of a few TeV. As primary cosmic rays are shielded by the Moon having the finite size of 0.5° in diameter, we observe a deficit in cosmic rays called the Moon's shadow with a significance of 40 α level for 1041 live days. The center of the Moon's shadow shifts westward depending on primary cosmic-ray energies due to the geomagnetic field. We calibrate the absolute energy scale of the primary cosmic rays observed by the Tibet III array using this effect. The Moon's shadow simulation, including a precise calculation of the geomagnetic effect, shows a good agreement with observational data. As a result, the systematic error in the absolute energy scale is estimated to be less than approximately ± 8% level by means of the geomagnetic field as a spectrometer.

    AB - The Tibet air shower array has been in operation since 1999 as Tibet III with an energy threshold of a few TeV. As primary cosmic rays are shielded by the Moon having the finite size of 0.5° in diameter, we observe a deficit in cosmic rays called the Moon's shadow with a significance of 40 α level for 1041 live days. The center of the Moon's shadow shifts westward depending on primary cosmic-ray energies due to the geomagnetic field. We calibrate the absolute energy scale of the primary cosmic rays observed by the Tibet III array using this effect. The Moon's shadow simulation, including a precise calculation of the geomagnetic effect, shows a good agreement with observational data. As a result, the systematic error in the absolute energy scale is estimated to be less than approximately ± 8% level by means of the geomagnetic field as a spectrometer.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84899020318&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84899020318&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    M3 - Conference contribution

    VL - 6

    SP - 53

    EP - 56

    BT - 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2005

    PB - Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

    ER -