Accelerated evolution in the protein-coding regions is universal in crotalinae snake venom gland phospholipase A2 isozyme genes

Kin Ichi Nakashima, Ikuo Nobuhisa, Masanobu Deshimaru, Makoto Nakai, Tomohisa Ogawa, Yasuyuki Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki Fukumaki, Masahira Hattori, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Shosaku Hattori, Motonori Ohno*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

180 Citations (Scopus)


The nucleotide sequences of four genes encoding Trimeresurus gramineus (green habu snake, crotalinae) venom gland phospholipase A2 (PLA2; phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase, EC isozymes were compared internally and externally with those of six genes encoding Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu snake, crotalinae) venom gland PLA2 isozymes. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site (K(N)) for the noncoding regions including introns were one-third to one-eighth of the numbers of nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (K(S)) for the protein-coding regions of exons, indicating that the noncoding regions are much more conserved than the protein-coding regions. The K(N) values for the introns were found to be nearly equivalent to those of introns of T. gramineus and T. flavoviridis TATA box-binding protein genes, which are assumed to be a general (nonvenomous) gene. Thus, it is evident that the introns of venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes have evolved at a similar rate to those of nonvenomous genes. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (K(A)) were close to or larger than the K(S) values for the protein-coding regions in venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes. All of the data combined reveal that Darwinian-type accelerated evolution has universally occurred only in the protein-coding regions of crotalinae snake venom PLA2 isozyme genes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5605-5609
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Jun 6
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General


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