Advantages of a modified ADM formulation: Constraint propagation analysis of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura system

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Several numerical relativity groups are using a modified Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formulation for their simulations, which was developed by Nakamura and co-workers (and widely cited as the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura system). This so-called BSSN formulation is shown to be more stable than the standard ADM formulation in many cases, and there have been many attempts to explain why this reformulation has such an advantage. We try to explain the background mechanism of the BSSN equations by using an eigenvalue analysis of constraint propagation equations. This analysis has been applied and has succeeded in explaining other systems in our series of works. We derive the full set of the constraint propagation equations, and study it in the flat background space-time. We carefully examine how the replacements and adjustments in the equations change the propagation structure of the constraints, i.e., whether violation of constraints (if it exists) will decay or propagate away. We conclude that the better stability of the BSSN system is obtained by their adjustments in the equations, and that the combination of the adjustments is in a good balance, i.e., a lack of their adjustments might fail to obtain the present stability. We further propose other adjustments to the equations, which may offer more stable features than the current BSSN equations.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 1


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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