Alkali-metal adsorption on the surface of materials is widely used for in situ surface electron doping, particularly for observing unoccupied band structures by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). However, the effects of alkali-metal atoms on the resulting band structures have yet to be fully investigated, owing to difficulties in both experiments and calculations. Here, we combine ARPES measurements on cesium-adsorbed ultrathin bismuth films with first-principles calculations of the electronic charge densities and demonstrate a simple method to evaluate alkali-metal induced band deformation. We reveal that deformation of bismuth surface bands is directly correlated with vertical charge-density profiles at each electronic state of bismuth. In contrast, a change in the quantized bulk bands is well described by a conventional rigid-band-shift picture. We discuss these two aspects of the band deformation holistically, considering spatial distributions of the electronic states and cesium-bismuth hybridization, and provide a prescription for applying alkali-metal adsorption to a wide range of materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics