Alloying behaviour of electroplated Ag film with its underlying Pd/Ti film stack for low resistivity interconnect metallization

Hirokazu Ezawa, Masahiro Miyata, Kohei Tatsumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, viability of electroplated Ag film into device application was studied. Alloying behavior of the Ag film with its underlying Pd(50 nm)/Ti(100 nm) film stack was investigated with respect to heat treatment at different temperatures from 400 °C to 800 °C in an argon ambient. After annealing at 400 °C, the electrical resistivity of the Ag film increased due to Pd alloying with Ag. Formation of Pd-Ti intermetallic phases became dominant over Ag-Pd alloying with increasing annealing temperature, leading to the resistivity decrease of the Ag film. The resistivity of the 800 °C annealed Ag film approached that of its as-plated Ag film. The excess Ti atoms which were not consumed to form the intermetallic phases with the Pd atoms migrated to the Ag film surface to form Ti oxides along the Ag grain boundaries on the topmost film surface. The Ag/Pd/Ti film stack has been confirmed to maintain the resistivity of the Ag film at as-plated low levels after high temperature annealing. This paper also discusses process integration issues to enable the Ag metallization process for future scaled and three dimensionally chip stacked devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)487-492
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Ag thin film
  • Ag-Pd alloy
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Electroplating
  • Interconnect materials
  • Pd-Ti intermetallic phases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys

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