This paper presents a framework for correcting errors of automatic drum sound detection focusing on the periodicity of drum patterns. We define drum patterns as periodic structures found in onset sequences of bass and snare drum sounds. Our framework extracts periodic drum patterns from imperfect onset sequences of detected drum sounds (bottom-up processing) and corrects errors using the periodicity of the drum patterns (top-down processing). We implemented this framework on our drum-sound detection system. We first obtained onset sequences of the drum sounds with our system and extracted drum patterns. On the basis of our observation that the same drum patterns tend to be repeated, we detected time points which deviate from the periodicity as error candidates. Finally, we verified each error candidate to judge whether it is an actual onset or not. Experiments of drum sound detection for polyphonic audio signals of popular CD recordings showed that our correction framework improved the average detection accuracy from 77.4% to 80.7%.