## Abstract

We show the appearance of emergent hierarchical structure by a generalized system based on hyper-dilation (P.-Y. Gunji, S. Toyoda, Biosystem 38 (1996) 127-133), that is a new approach for complex systems. Hyper-dilation comprises a measurement problem hidden in any formal system. In hyper-dilation, the measurement process is expressed as the interface between an infinite lattice, which is an infinite loop of a rule, and a finite lattice, which is a tree structure of a rule. Hyper-dilation shows two intrinsic properties, one is degeneracy of a Cantor set in return map, and the other is generation of 1/f noise. We present various versions of hyper-dilation and suggest that to generate 1/f noise, it is required that the rules of the system are changed through a coherent process and that the system is closed for information. From these two properties of hyper-dilation, we discuss that the degeneracy is regarded as the model of emergence of a new hierarchy, and in hyper-dilation, actually we show the motion of a system that can be regarded as the appearance of a new hierarchy.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 153-178 |

Number of pages | 26 |

Journal | Applied Mathematics and Computation |

Volume | 104 |

Issue number | 2-3 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1999 Sep |

Externally published | Yes |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computational Mathematics
- Applied Mathematics