Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Ferri/Ferrocyanide Redox Couple and Lithium Ion Battery Systems Using a Square Wave as Signal Input

Tokihiko Yokoshima, Daikichi Mukoyama, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yuhei Gima, Hidehiko Isawa, Hiroki Nara, Toshiyuki Momma, Tetsuya Osaka

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18 Citations (Scopus)


To realize electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a simple measurement system, application of a square potential/current waveform to the input signals of EIS was investigated. The impedance of a simple redox reaction of [Fe(CN)<inf>6</inf>]<sup>4-</sup>/[Fe(CN)<inf>6</inf>]<sup>3-</sup> solution was measured by the potentio-EIS using a square waveform as the input signal, which was generated by a potentiostat system without a frequency response analyzer (FRA). A steady impedance response in the frequency range of 40 Hz-3.5 kHz was obtained, and the impedance was obtained by the potentiostat system with an FRA. The errors - the differences between the impedance measured by EIS with a square potential waveform and that of conventional EIS - were sufficiently low to allow impedance analysis. The impedance of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) was measured by galvano-EIS using a square waveform input signal generated by a power controller. A steady impedance response in the frequency range of 5 Hz-2.5 kHz was obtained, and the errors were sufficiently low to allow impedance analysis. It was demonstrated that both square potential-EIS (SP-EIS) and square current-EIS (SC-EIS) have great potential as simple systems for measuring impedance. Moreover, it was demonstrated that SC-EIS has potential as a simple measurement system for analyzing the state of an LIB. Thus, the potential of the SP/SC-EIS methodology was confirmed for electrochemical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number25551
Pages (from-to)922-928
Number of pages7
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 20



  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • FFT impedance
  • Input signal
  • Lithium ion battery
  • Square wave

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

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