Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment

Shuri Marui, Ayaka Misawa, Yuki Tanaka, Kei Nagashima

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    CONCLUSIONS: Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent temperature measurements as normal or abnormal. Moreover, axillary temperature variations may, in part, reflect fat mass and changes due to the menstrual cycle.

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature.

    METHODS: Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg).

    RESULTS: T reg, T ax-10 s, T ax-10 min, and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min, T ty and T ax-10 s, and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P < .001), but not between T reg and T ax-10 s (r = .11, P = .20). A lower T ax-10 s was associated with smaller body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)18
    Number of pages1
    JournalJournal of Physiological Anthropology
    Volume36
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 22

    Fingerprint

    Body Temperature
    young adult
    Young Adult
    Temperature
    evaluation
    Thermometry
    Menstrual Cycle
    Thermometers
    measurement method
    sleep
    eating behavior
    habits
    Equipment and Supplies
    Tympanic Membrane
    Body Temperature Regulation
    Feeding Behavior
    health
    Values
    Healthy Volunteers
    Sleep

    Keywords

    • Body mass index
    • Core temperature
    • Digital thermometer
    • Healthy people
    • Infrared thermometry
    • Menstrual cycle
    • Prediction measurement
    • Regular body temperature
    • Thermal sensation
    • Tympanic temperature

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Human Factors and Ergonomics
    • Physiology
    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Anthropology
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Physiology (medical)

    Cite this

    @article{26fc06d20bff47859c93b49b4693a210,
    title = "Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment",
    abstract = "CONCLUSIONS: Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent temperature measurements as normal or abnormal. Moreover, axillary temperature variations may, in part, reflect fat mass and changes due to the menstrual cycle.BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature.METHODS: Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg).RESULTS: T reg, T ax-10 s, T ax-10 min, and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min, T ty and T ax-10 s, and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P < .001), but not between T reg and T ax-10 s (r = .11, P = .20). A lower T ax-10 s was associated with smaller body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles.",
    keywords = "Body mass index, Core temperature, Digital thermometer, Healthy people, Infrared thermometry, Menstrual cycle, Prediction measurement, Regular body temperature, Thermal sensation, Tympanic temperature",
    author = "Shuri Marui and Ayaka Misawa and Yuki Tanaka and Kei Nagashima",
    year = "2017",
    month = "2",
    day = "22",
    doi = "10.1186/s40101-017-0133-y",
    language = "English",
    volume = "36",
    pages = "18",
    journal = "Journal of Physiological Anthropology",
    issn = "1880-6791",
    publisher = "Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment

    AU - Marui, Shuri

    AU - Misawa, Ayaka

    AU - Tanaka, Yuki

    AU - Nagashima, Kei

    PY - 2017/2/22

    Y1 - 2017/2/22

    N2 - CONCLUSIONS: Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent temperature measurements as normal or abnormal. Moreover, axillary temperature variations may, in part, reflect fat mass and changes due to the menstrual cycle.BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature.METHODS: Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg).RESULTS: T reg, T ax-10 s, T ax-10 min, and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min, T ty and T ax-10 s, and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P < .001), but not between T reg and T ax-10 s (r = .11, P = .20). A lower T ax-10 s was associated with smaller body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles.

    AB - CONCLUSIONS: Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent temperature measurements as normal or abnormal. Moreover, axillary temperature variations may, in part, reflect fat mass and changes due to the menstrual cycle.BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature.METHODS: Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg).RESULTS: T reg, T ax-10 s, T ax-10 min, and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min, T ty and T ax-10 s, and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P < .001), but not between T reg and T ax-10 s (r = .11, P = .20). A lower T ax-10 s was associated with smaller body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles.

    KW - Body mass index

    KW - Core temperature

    KW - Digital thermometer

    KW - Healthy people

    KW - Infrared thermometry

    KW - Menstrual cycle

    KW - Prediction measurement

    KW - Regular body temperature

    KW - Thermal sensation

    KW - Tympanic temperature

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85021859993&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85021859993&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1186/s40101-017-0133-y

    DO - 10.1186/s40101-017-0133-y

    M3 - Article

    VL - 36

    SP - 18

    JO - Journal of Physiological Anthropology

    JF - Journal of Physiological Anthropology

    SN - 1880-6791

    IS - 1

    ER -