Behavior of Pd/Sn and Pd Catalysts for Electroless Plating on Different Substrates Investigated by Means of Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy

Leo G. Svendsen, Tetsuya Osaka, Hideo Sawai

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36 Citations (Scopus)


Two catalytic systems for electroless metal deposition have been investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The well-known tin sensitizer, palladium activator, two-step catalyst had the main emphasis, but also a commercial one based on evaporated palladium was examined. The behavior of the two-step catalyst was largely dependent on the substrates used. On A12O3, the Sn:Pd ratio was 1:1 with 1.3 x 1016 atoms/cm2 each. On carbon substrates, the Sn:Pd ratio was 1:4 with 6 × 1015 tin atoms/cm2 and 24 x 1015 palladium atoms/cm2. Both these results violate the simple reaction mechanism described by the equation Sn2+ + Pd2+→ Sn4+ + Pdo. The commercial catalyst on polyimide containing 2.5 × 1015 palladium atoms/cm2 on the surface behaved differently compared to the two-step catalyst by diffusing into the deposited layer and thereby influencing its deposition rate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2252-2255
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1983 Nov



  • Rutherford backscattering
  • catalysis
  • electroless

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

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