Bifurcation branch of stationary solutions for a Lotka-Volterra cross-diffusion system in a spatially heterogeneous environment

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Abstract

This paper is concerned with the following Lotka-Volterra cross-diffusion system in a spatially heterogeneous environment (SP) {(Δ [(1 + k ρ (x) v) u] + u (a - u - c (x) v) = 0, in Ω,; Δ v + v (b + d (x) u - v) = 0, in Ω,; ∂ ν u = ∂ ν v = 0, on ∂ Ω .) Here Ω is a bounded domain in R N (N ≤ 3), a and k are positive constants, b is a real constant, c (x) > 0 and d (x) ≥ 0 are continuous functions and ρ (x) > 0 is a smooth function with ∂ ν ρ = 0 on ∂ Ω. From a viewpoint of the mathematical ecology, unknown functions u and v, respectively, represent stationary population densities of prey and predator which interact and migrate in Ω. Hence, the set Γ p of positive solutions (with bifurcation parameter b) forms a bounded line in a spatially homogeneous case that ρ, c and d are constant. This paper proves that if a and | b | are small and k is large, a spatial segregation of ρ (x) and d (x) causes Γ p to form a ⊂-shaped curve with respect to b. A crucial aspect of the proof involves the solving of a suitable limiting system as a, | b | → 0 and k → ∞ by using the bifurcation theory and the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)943-965
Number of pages23
JournalNonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cross-diffusion System
Heterogeneous Environment
Lotka-Volterra System
Stationary Solutions
Branch
Bifurcation
Lyapunov-Schmidt Reduction
Bifurcation Theory
Ecology
Segregation
Predator
Prey
Smooth function
Positive Solution
Bounded Domain
Continuous Function
Limiting
Unknown
Curve
Line

Keywords

  • Bifurcation
  • Cross-diffusion
  • Heterogeneous environment
  • Limiting system
  • Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction
  • Multiple coexistence states
  • Perturbation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analysis
  • Engineering(all)
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics

Cite this

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title = "Bifurcation branch of stationary solutions for a Lotka-Volterra cross-diffusion system in a spatially heterogeneous environment",
abstract = "This paper is concerned with the following Lotka-Volterra cross-diffusion system in a spatially heterogeneous environment (SP) {(Δ [(1 + k ρ (x) v) u] + u (a - u - c (x) v) = 0, in Ω,; Δ v + v (b + d (x) u - v) = 0, in Ω,; ∂ ν u = ∂ ν v = 0, on ∂ Ω .) Here Ω is a bounded domain in R N (N ≤ 3), a and k are positive constants, b is a real constant, c (x) > 0 and d (x) ≥ 0 are continuous functions and ρ (x) > 0 is a smooth function with ∂ ν ρ = 0 on ∂ Ω. From a viewpoint of the mathematical ecology, unknown functions u and v, respectively, represent stationary population densities of prey and predator which interact and migrate in Ω. Hence, the set Γ p of positive solutions (with bifurcation parameter b) forms a bounded line in a spatially homogeneous case that ρ, c and d are constant. This paper proves that if a and | b | are small and k is large, a spatial segregation of ρ (x) and d (x) causes Γ p to form a ⊂-shaped curve with respect to b. A crucial aspect of the proof involves the solving of a suitable limiting system as a, | b | → 0 and k → ∞ by using the bifurcation theory and the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction.",
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N2 - This paper is concerned with the following Lotka-Volterra cross-diffusion system in a spatially heterogeneous environment (SP) {(Δ [(1 + k ρ (x) v) u] + u (a - u - c (x) v) = 0, in Ω,; Δ v + v (b + d (x) u - v) = 0, in Ω,; ∂ ν u = ∂ ν v = 0, on ∂ Ω .) Here Ω is a bounded domain in R N (N ≤ 3), a and k are positive constants, b is a real constant, c (x) > 0 and d (x) ≥ 0 are continuous functions and ρ (x) > 0 is a smooth function with ∂ ν ρ = 0 on ∂ Ω. From a viewpoint of the mathematical ecology, unknown functions u and v, respectively, represent stationary population densities of prey and predator which interact and migrate in Ω. Hence, the set Γ p of positive solutions (with bifurcation parameter b) forms a bounded line in a spatially homogeneous case that ρ, c and d are constant. This paper proves that if a and | b | are small and k is large, a spatial segregation of ρ (x) and d (x) causes Γ p to form a ⊂-shaped curve with respect to b. A crucial aspect of the proof involves the solving of a suitable limiting system as a, | b | → 0 and k → ∞ by using the bifurcation theory and the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction.

AB - This paper is concerned with the following Lotka-Volterra cross-diffusion system in a spatially heterogeneous environment (SP) {(Δ [(1 + k ρ (x) v) u] + u (a - u - c (x) v) = 0, in Ω,; Δ v + v (b + d (x) u - v) = 0, in Ω,; ∂ ν u = ∂ ν v = 0, on ∂ Ω .) Here Ω is a bounded domain in R N (N ≤ 3), a and k are positive constants, b is a real constant, c (x) > 0 and d (x) ≥ 0 are continuous functions and ρ (x) > 0 is a smooth function with ∂ ν ρ = 0 on ∂ Ω. From a viewpoint of the mathematical ecology, unknown functions u and v, respectively, represent stationary population densities of prey and predator which interact and migrate in Ω. Hence, the set Γ p of positive solutions (with bifurcation parameter b) forms a bounded line in a spatially homogeneous case that ρ, c and d are constant. This paper proves that if a and | b | are small and k is large, a spatial segregation of ρ (x) and d (x) causes Γ p to form a ⊂-shaped curve with respect to b. A crucial aspect of the proof involves the solving of a suitable limiting system as a, | b | → 0 and k → ∞ by using the bifurcation theory and the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction.

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