The micro- and nanosize surface topography of dental implants has been shown to affect the growth of surrounding cells. In this study, standardized and controlled periodic nanopatterns were fabricated with nanosized surface roughness on titanium substrates, and their influence on bone marrow stromal cells investigated. Cell proliferation assays revealed that the bare substrate with a 1.7 nm surface roughness has lower hydrophilicity but higher proliferation ability than that with a 0.6 nm surface roughness. Further, with the latter substrate, directional cell growth was observed for line and groove patterns with a width of 100 nm and a height of 50 or 100 nm, but not for those with a height of 10 or 25 nm. With the smooth substrate, time-lapse microscopic analyses showed that more than 80% of the bone marrow cells on the line and groove pattern with a height of 100 nm grew and divided along the lines. As the nanosized grain structure controls the cell proliferation rate and the nanosized line and groove structure (50–100 nm) controls cell migration, division, and growth orientation, these standardized nanosized titanium structures can be used to elucidate the mechanisms by which surface topography regulates tissue responses to biomaterials.
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