Biped walking robots created at Waseda University: WL and WABIAN family

Hun Ok Lim*, Atsuo Takanishi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes the mechanism and control of the biped humanoid robots WABIAN-RIV and WL-16. WABIAN-RIV has 43 mechanical degrees of freedom (d.f.): 6 d.f. in each leg, 7 d.f. in each arm, 3 d.f. in each hand, 2 d.f. in each eye, 4 d.f. in the neck and 3 d.f. in the waist. Its height is about 1.89 m and its total weight is 127 kg. It has a vision system and a voice recognition system to mimic some of the capabilities of the human senses. WL-16 consists of a pelvis and two legs having six 1 d.f. active linear actuators. An aluminium chair is mounted on two sets of its telescopic poles. To reduce the large support forces during the support phase, a support torque reduction mechanism is developed, which is composed of two compression gas springs with different stiffness. For the stability of the robots, a compensatory motion control algorithm is developed. This control compensates for moments generated by the motion of the lower limbs, using the motion of the trunk and the waist that is obtained by the zero moment point concept and fast Fourier transform. WABIAN-RIV is able to walk forwards, backwards and sideways, dance, carry heavy goods and express emotion, etc. WL-16 can move forwards, backwards and sideways while carrying an adult weighing up to 60 kg.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-64
Number of pages16
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number1850
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jan 15


  • Biped walking robot
  • Parallel mechanism
  • Stability
  • Walking pattern
  • Zero moment point compensatory motion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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