Black-hole universe: Time evolution

Chul Moon Yoo*, Hirotada Okawa, Ken Ichi Nakao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.

Original languageEnglish
Article number161102
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct 14
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Black-hole universe: Time evolution'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this