### Abstract

An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P=wρ with -1≤zolution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 131101 |

Journal | Physical Review Letters |

Volume | 104 |

Issue number | 13 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2010 Apr 2 |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Physics and Astronomy(all)

### Cite this

*Physical Review Letters*,

*104*(13), [131101]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.131101

**Black holes in an expanding universe.** / Gibbons, Gary W.; Maeda, Keiichi.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 104, no. 13, 131101. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.131101

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Black holes in an expanding universe

AU - Gibbons, Gary W.

AU - Maeda, Keiichi

PY - 2010/4/2

Y1 - 2010/4/2

N2 - An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P=wρ with -1≤zolution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.

AB - An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P=wρ with -1≤zolution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77950407960&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77950407960&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.131101

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.131101

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77950407960

VL - 104

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 13

M1 - 131101

ER -