Calf circumference as a surrogate marker of muscle mass for diagnosing sarcopenia in Japanese men and women

Ryoko Kawakami, Haruka Murakami, Kiyoshi Sanada, Noriko Tanaka, Susumu S. Sawada, Izumi Tabata, Mitsuru Higuchi, Motohiko Miyachi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: To examine the relationship between calf circumference and muscle mass, and to evaluate the suitability of calf circumference as a surrogate marker of muscle mass for the diagnosis of sarcopenia among middle-aged and older Japanese men and women. Methods: A total of 526 adults aged 40-89 years participated in the present cross-sectional study. The maximum calf circumference was measured in a standing position. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the skeletal muscle index was calculated as appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by the square of the height (kg/m2). The cut-off values for sarcopenia were defined as a skeletal muscle index of less than -2 standard deviations of the mean value for Japanese young adults, as defined previously. Results: Calf circumference was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle (r=0.81 in men, r=0.73 in women) and skeletal muscle index (r=0.80 in men, r=0.69 in women). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal calf circumference cut-off values for predicting sarcopenia were 34cm (sensitivity 88%, specificity 91%) in men and 33cm (sensitivity 76%, specificity 73%) in women. Conclusions: Calf circumference was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle index, and could be used as a surrogate marker of muscle mass for diagnosing sarcopenia. The suggested cut-off values of calf circumference for predicting low muscle mass are <34cm in men and <33cm in women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-976
Number of pages8
JournalGeriatrics and Gerontology International
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 1

Keywords

  • Anthropometric
  • Body composition
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
  • Japanese
  • Muscle strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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