Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)

Shozo Kono, Taisuke Kageura, Yuya Hayashi, Sung Gi Ri, Tokuyuki Teraji, Daisuke Takeuchi, Masahiko Ogura, Hideyuki Kodama, Atsuhito Sawabe, Masafumi Inaba, Atsushi Hiraiwa, Hiroshi Kawarada

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)105-130
    Number of pages26
    JournalDiamond and Related Materials
    Volume93
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 1

    Fingerprint

    Diamond
    Photoelectrons
    Hydrogen
    Chemical vapor deposition
    Diamonds
    Carbon
    Oxygen
    X rays
    X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
    Photoelectron spectroscopy
    Single crystals
    Vacuum
    Surface phenomena
    Valence bands
    Fermi level
    Charge transfer
    Monolayers
    Surface roughness
    Doping (additives)
    Atoms

    Keywords

    • 1s core level
    • Band bending
    • Carbon
    • CVD diamond
    • Surface
    • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Chemistry(all)
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Materials Chemistry
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    Cite this

    Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001). / Kono, Shozo; Kageura, Taisuke; Hayashi, Yuya; Ri, Sung Gi; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Ogura, Masahiko; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito; Inaba, Masafumi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi.

    In: Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 93, 01.03.2019, p. 105-130.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Kono, S, Kageura, T, Hayashi, Y, Ri, SG, Teraji, T, Takeuchi, D, Ogura, M, Kodama, H, Sawabe, A, Inaba, M, Hiraiwa, A & Kawarada, H 2019, 'Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)' Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 93, pp. 105-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2019.01.017
    Kono, Shozo ; Kageura, Taisuke ; Hayashi, Yuya ; Ri, Sung Gi ; Teraji, Tokuyuki ; Takeuchi, Daisuke ; Ogura, Masahiko ; Kodama, Hideyuki ; Sawabe, Atsuhito ; Inaba, Masafumi ; Hiraiwa, Atsushi ; Kawarada, Hiroshi. / Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001). In: Diamond and Related Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 93. pp. 105-130.
    @article{cd668cb63e7d40b382756745b491688e,
    title = "Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)",
    abstract = "Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.",
    keywords = "1s core level, Band bending, Carbon, CVD diamond, Surface, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy",
    author = "Shozo Kono and Taisuke Kageura and Yuya Hayashi and Ri, {Sung Gi} and Tokuyuki Teraji and Daisuke Takeuchi and Masahiko Ogura and Hideyuki Kodama and Atsuhito Sawabe and Masafumi Inaba and Atsushi Hiraiwa and Hiroshi Kawarada",
    year = "2019",
    month = "3",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/j.diamond.2019.01.017",
    language = "English",
    volume = "93",
    pages = "105--130",
    journal = "Diamond and Related Materials",
    issn = "0925-9635",
    publisher = "Elsevier BV",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)

    AU - Kono, Shozo

    AU - Kageura, Taisuke

    AU - Hayashi, Yuya

    AU - Ri, Sung Gi

    AU - Teraji, Tokuyuki

    AU - Takeuchi, Daisuke

    AU - Ogura, Masahiko

    AU - Kodama, Hideyuki

    AU - Sawabe, Atsuhito

    AU - Inaba, Masafumi

    AU - Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    AU - Kawarada, Hiroshi

    PY - 2019/3/1

    Y1 - 2019/3/1

    N2 - Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

    AB - Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

    KW - 1s core level

    KW - Band bending

    KW - Carbon

    KW - CVD diamond

    KW - Surface

    KW - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85061306787&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85061306787&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/j.diamond.2019.01.017

    DO - 10.1016/j.diamond.2019.01.017

    M3 - Article

    VL - 93

    SP - 105

    EP - 130

    JO - Diamond and Related Materials

    JF - Diamond and Related Materials

    SN - 0925-9635

    ER -