Chemical compositional signatures of constituent minerals of iron slags and ores from the khmer monuments

Etsuo Uchida*, Motoki Murasugi, Ayaka Kuroda, Yusu Lu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Iron slags and ores were collected from 22 sites (A to V) in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay, the area surrounding Phnom Daek, and the Angkor monuments. Iron ores were taken from two outcrops in Phnom Daek. The chemical compositions of fayalite and wüstite in the iron slags and magnetite in the iron ores were determined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis using averaged chemical compositional data for fayalite allowed for the investigated slag dumps to be classified into two main groups: Groups 1 and 2. The slag dumps in the area surrounding Phnom Daek and those in the Angkor monuments were classified as Group 1, and those in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay were classified as Group 2, except for sites C and U, which were classified as Group 1. Radiocarbon dating was carried out on 10 charcoal fragments from slag dumps outside the Angkor area. The dating results indicate that iron making in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay was conducted in and after the 13th century except for sites C and U, where iron ores may have been supplied from Phnom Daek before the 13th century.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1724-1738
Number of pages15
JournalHeritage
Volume2
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun

Keywords

  • Chemical composition
  • Iron ore
  • Iron slag
  • Khmer monuments
  • Phnom daek
  • Radiocarbon dating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Conservation
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)

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