Chicken pineal clock genes

Implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation

Toshiyuki Okano, Kazuyuki Yamamoto, Keiko Okano, Tsuyoshi Hirota, Takaoki Kasahara, Momoko Sasaki, Yoko Takanaka, Yoshitaka Fukada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop of vertebrate circadian clock systems, a BMAL1-CLOCK heterodimer is a positive regulator for the transcription of the negative element gene Per. The chicken pineal gland represents a photosensitive clock tissue, but the pineal clock genes constituting the oscillator loop have been less well characterized. Results: We identified expression of the Per2, Bmal1, Bmal2 and Clock genes in the chicken pineal gland. Messenger RNA levels of these genes exhibited overt circadian rhythms in the pineal cells, both in vivo and in culture. In vitro functional analyses revealed the formation of cBMAL1-cCLOCK and cBMAL2-cCLOCK heteromers. Both of the cBMAL-cCLOCK heteromers activated E-box element-dependent transcription, which was negatively regulated by cPER2 in luciferase assays. Co-expression of cCLOCK, cBMAL1 and cBMAL2 co-operatively activated E-box element-dependent transcription, and a greater level of expression of cBMAL2 inhibited the activation. In the cultured pineal cells, an over-expression of either cBMAL1 or cBMAL2 disrupted the circadian rhythm of melatonin production. Conclusion: The functional characterization of the chicken pineal clock molecules supports the key roles of BMAL1, BMAL2 and CLOCK which contribute to the E-box-dependent transcriptional regulation in the circadian clock system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-836
Number of pages12
JournalGenes to Cells
Volume6
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Circadian Clocks
Chickens
E-Box Elements
Pineal Gland
Circadian Rhythm
Genes
Melatonin
Luciferases
Vertebrates
Cultured Cells
Messenger RNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Chicken pineal clock genes : Implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation. / Okano, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Okano, Keiko; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Takaoki; Sasaki, Momoko; Takanaka, Yoko; Fukada, Yoshitaka.

In: Genes to Cells, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2001, p. 825-836.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okano, T, Yamamoto, K, Okano, K, Hirota, T, Kasahara, T, Sasaki, M, Takanaka, Y & Fukada, Y 2001, 'Chicken pineal clock genes: Implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation', Genes to Cells, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 825-836. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00462.x
Okano, Toshiyuki ; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki ; Okano, Keiko ; Hirota, Tsuyoshi ; Kasahara, Takaoki ; Sasaki, Momoko ; Takanaka, Yoko ; Fukada, Yoshitaka. / Chicken pineal clock genes : Implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation. In: Genes to Cells. 2001 ; Vol. 6, No. 9. pp. 825-836.
@article{8c69a9216c58496e8a52abc2c7015532,
title = "Chicken pineal clock genes: Implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation",
abstract = "Background: In a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop of vertebrate circadian clock systems, a BMAL1-CLOCK heterodimer is a positive regulator for the transcription of the negative element gene Per. The chicken pineal gland represents a photosensitive clock tissue, but the pineal clock genes constituting the oscillator loop have been less well characterized. Results: We identified expression of the Per2, Bmal1, Bmal2 and Clock genes in the chicken pineal gland. Messenger RNA levels of these genes exhibited overt circadian rhythms in the pineal cells, both in vivo and in culture. In vitro functional analyses revealed the formation of cBMAL1-cCLOCK and cBMAL2-cCLOCK heteromers. Both of the cBMAL-cCLOCK heteromers activated E-box element-dependent transcription, which was negatively regulated by cPER2 in luciferase assays. Co-expression of cCLOCK, cBMAL1 and cBMAL2 co-operatively activated E-box element-dependent transcription, and a greater level of expression of cBMAL2 inhibited the activation. In the cultured pineal cells, an over-expression of either cBMAL1 or cBMAL2 disrupted the circadian rhythm of melatonin production. Conclusion: The functional characterization of the chicken pineal clock molecules supports the key roles of BMAL1, BMAL2 and CLOCK which contribute to the E-box-dependent transcriptional regulation in the circadian clock system.",
author = "Toshiyuki Okano and Kazuyuki Yamamoto and Keiko Okano and Tsuyoshi Hirota and Takaoki Kasahara and Momoko Sasaki and Yoko Takanaka and Yoshitaka Fukada",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00462.x",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "825--836",
journal = "Genes to Cells",
issn = "1356-9597",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chicken pineal clock genes

T2 - Implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation

AU - Okano, Toshiyuki

AU - Yamamoto, Kazuyuki

AU - Okano, Keiko

AU - Hirota, Tsuyoshi

AU - Kasahara, Takaoki

AU - Sasaki, Momoko

AU - Takanaka, Yoko

AU - Fukada, Yoshitaka

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Background: In a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop of vertebrate circadian clock systems, a BMAL1-CLOCK heterodimer is a positive regulator for the transcription of the negative element gene Per. The chicken pineal gland represents a photosensitive clock tissue, but the pineal clock genes constituting the oscillator loop have been less well characterized. Results: We identified expression of the Per2, Bmal1, Bmal2 and Clock genes in the chicken pineal gland. Messenger RNA levels of these genes exhibited overt circadian rhythms in the pineal cells, both in vivo and in culture. In vitro functional analyses revealed the formation of cBMAL1-cCLOCK and cBMAL2-cCLOCK heteromers. Both of the cBMAL-cCLOCK heteromers activated E-box element-dependent transcription, which was negatively regulated by cPER2 in luciferase assays. Co-expression of cCLOCK, cBMAL1 and cBMAL2 co-operatively activated E-box element-dependent transcription, and a greater level of expression of cBMAL2 inhibited the activation. In the cultured pineal cells, an over-expression of either cBMAL1 or cBMAL2 disrupted the circadian rhythm of melatonin production. Conclusion: The functional characterization of the chicken pineal clock molecules supports the key roles of BMAL1, BMAL2 and CLOCK which contribute to the E-box-dependent transcriptional regulation in the circadian clock system.

AB - Background: In a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop of vertebrate circadian clock systems, a BMAL1-CLOCK heterodimer is a positive regulator for the transcription of the negative element gene Per. The chicken pineal gland represents a photosensitive clock tissue, but the pineal clock genes constituting the oscillator loop have been less well characterized. Results: We identified expression of the Per2, Bmal1, Bmal2 and Clock genes in the chicken pineal gland. Messenger RNA levels of these genes exhibited overt circadian rhythms in the pineal cells, both in vivo and in culture. In vitro functional analyses revealed the formation of cBMAL1-cCLOCK and cBMAL2-cCLOCK heteromers. Both of the cBMAL-cCLOCK heteromers activated E-box element-dependent transcription, which was negatively regulated by cPER2 in luciferase assays. Co-expression of cCLOCK, cBMAL1 and cBMAL2 co-operatively activated E-box element-dependent transcription, and a greater level of expression of cBMAL2 inhibited the activation. In the cultured pineal cells, an over-expression of either cBMAL1 or cBMAL2 disrupted the circadian rhythm of melatonin production. Conclusion: The functional characterization of the chicken pineal clock molecules supports the key roles of BMAL1, BMAL2 and CLOCK which contribute to the E-box-dependent transcriptional regulation in the circadian clock system.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034824953&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034824953&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00462.x

DO - 10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00462.x

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 825

EP - 836

JO - Genes to Cells

JF - Genes to Cells

SN - 1356-9597

IS - 9

ER -