Circadian oscillations of microbial and functional composition in the human salivary microbiome

Lena Takayasu, Wataru Suda, Kageyasu Takanashi, Erica Iioka, Rina Kurokawa, Chie Shindo, Yasue Hattori, Naoko Yamashita, Suguru Nishijima, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The human microbiomes across the body evidently interact with various signals in response to biogeographical physiological conditions. To understand such interactions in detail, we investigated how the salivary microbiome in the oral cavity would be regulated by host-related signals. Here, we show that the microbial abundance and gene participating in keeping the human salivary microbiome exhibit global circadian rhythm. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of salivary microbial samples of six healthy adults collected at 4-h intervals for three days revealed that the microbial genera accounting for 68.4-89.6% of the total abundance were observed to significantly oscillate with the periodicity of -1/424 h. These oscillation patterns showed high variations amongst individuals, and the extent of circadian variations in individuals was generally lower than that of interindividual variations. Of the microbial categories oscillated, those classified by aerobic/anaerobic growth and Gram staining, Firmicutes including Streptococcus and Gemella, and Bacteroidetes including Prevotella showed high association with the circadian oscillation. The circadian oscillation was completely abolished by incubating the saliva in vitro, suggesting that host's physiological changes mostly contributed to the microbial oscillation. Further metagenomic analysis showed that circadian oscillation enriched the functions of environmental responses such as various transporters and two-component regulatory systems in the evening, and those of metabolisms such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and fatty acids in the morning.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)261-270
    Number of pages10
    JournalDNA Research
    Volume24
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jun 1

    Keywords

    • 16S rRNA gene
    • circadian rhythm
    • human
    • oral
    • salivary microbiome

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine(all)
    • Molecular Biology
    • Genetics

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