### Abstract

We construct a quantumness witness following the work of Alicki & van Ryn (AvR). We reformulate the AvR test by defining it for quantum states rather than for observables. This allows us to identify the necessary quantities and resources to detect quantumness for any given system. The first quantity turns out to be the purity of the system. When applying the witness to a system with even moderate mixedness, the protocol is unable to reveal any quantumness. We then show that having many copies of the system leads the witness to reveal quantumness. This seems contrary to the Bohr correspondence, which asserts that, in the large-number limit, quantum systems become classical, whereas the witness shows quantumness when several non-quantum systems, as determined by the witness, are considered together. However, the resources required to detect the quantumness increase dramatically with the number of systems. We apply the quantumness witness for systems that are highly mixed but in the large-number limit that resembles nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. We make several conclusions about detecting quantumness in NMR-like systems.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 4810-4820 |

Number of pages | 11 |

Journal | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences |

Volume | 370 |

Issue number | 1976 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2012 Oct 13 |

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### Keywords

- Large-number limit
- Purity
- Quantumness witness

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Mathematics(all)
- Engineering(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)

### Cite this

*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences*,

*370*(1976), 4810-4820. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0353