Comparison of foot posture and foot muscle morphology between lifesaver athletes and healthy adults

Shota Ichikawa*, Tsukasa Kumai, Takumi Okunuki, Toshihiro Maemichi, Masatomo Matsumoto, Hiroki Yabiku, Zijian Liu, Ryusei Yamaguchi, Arina Iwayama, Goro Ayukawa, Yui Akiyama, Hiroyuki Mitsui, Hisateru Niki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to compare the foot muscle morphology and foot posture between healthy adults and lifesavers in sandy beach sports. The participants included 15 lifesaver athletes and 15 healthy adults. Using a non-contact three-dimensional foot measurement device, the foot length, width, and arch height of the right foot were measured while standing and sitting without back support, and the transverse arch length ratio and arch height index were subsequently calculated. Muscle cross-sectional area was measured using an ultrasound imaging device. Muscle cross-sectional areas, arch height, foot width, arch height index, and transverse arch length ratio were larger in the lifesaver than in the healthy adult group. Lifesavers had higher arches and more developed intrinsic and extrinsic muscles than healthy adults. Performing physical activity while barefoot on sandy beaches may effectively develop the foot intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and raise the arch.

Original languageEnglish
JournalResearch in Sports Medicine
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Lifesaver
  • foot intrinsic and extrinsic muscles
  • medial longitudinal arch
  • sandy beach
  • transverse arch

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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