Development of attosecond laser technology allows us to measure electron dynamics such as photoionization delays between different species or electronic states. In general, the measured photoionization phase is a mixture of the spectral phase of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse and the atomic phases inherent to the optical transitions. Hence, it is difficult to disentangle these phases independently. Here we separate these phases by using an XUV attosecond pulse train containing both even and odd harmonic orders, generated by an 800- and 400 nm laser pulse, in the presence of the infrared 800-nm pulse. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions as a function of two independently controlled delays, the XUV-IR and the 800-400 nm delays, with attosecond time resolution. We analyze the photoelectron angular distributions to determine the relative amplitudes and phases of each angular momentum component. Using an in situ technique, we determine the phases of the harmonic orders and thereby completely determine the atomic phases. Using the obtained atomic phases and amplitudes, we reconstruct the real and imaginary parts of the continuum wave functions associated with three individual photoionization pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics