Concentrations of metallic elements in long-range-transported aerosols measured simultaneously at three coastal sites in China and Japan

Kojiro Shimada, Xiaoyang Yang, Yushi Araki, Ayako Yoshino, Akinori Takami, Xuan Chen, Fan Meng, Shiro Hatakeyama

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    Abstract

    To determine the effects of long-range transport of aerosols from an upwind area in East Asia to a downwind area in Japan, we chemically analyzed aerosols collected simultaneously on Tuoji Island (Shandong Province, China), Fukue Island (Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan), and Cape Hedo (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan). We focused on changes in the metallic composition of PM2.5 aerosols during long-range transport. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 at the three sites decreased in the order Tuoji Island > Fukue Island ≈ Cape Hedo (48.3 ± 4.5, 13.9 ± 1.5, and 13.2 ± 0.9 μg/m3, respectively). The fraction of coarse particles in total suspended particles estimated by (1–PM2.5/TSP) was highest on Cape Hedo, indicating that the contribution of sea salts was increased by long-range transport of the aerosols over the ocean. Enrichment factor analysis revealed that at all three sites, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Sr, and Ba originated from soil; whereas Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl, and P appeared to be of anthropogenic origin. Na was the most abundant element on Cape Hedo, indicating the addition of sea salts during aerosol transport. The V concentration was highest at Fukue Island, which was ascribed to V emission from ships. Sixty-one percent of the V on Fukue Island and 62% of the V on Cape Hedo were determined to have originated from ships, implicating of data obtained on dates during which backward trajectory analysis indicated that the same air mass passed over Tuoji Island, Fukue Island, and Cape Hedo in that order.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-17
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Atmospheric Chemistry
    DOIs
    Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2017 Jun 7

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    Keywords

    • East Asia
    • Enrichment factor
    • Metallic elements
    • Trans-boundary air pollution
    • Vanadium

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Chemistry
    • Atmospheric Science

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