Continuous Mesoporous Pd Films by Electrochemical Deposition in Nonionic Micellar Solution

Muhammad Iqbal, Cuiling Li, Kathleen Wood, Bo Jiang, Toshiaki Takei, Ömer Dag, Daisuke Baba, Asep Sugih Nugraha, Toru Asahi, Andrew E. Whitten, Md Shahriar A. Hossain, Victor Malgras, Yusuke Yamauchi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    15 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Mesoporous metals that combine catalytic activity and high surface area can provide more opportunities for electrochemical applications. Various synthetic methods, including hard and soft templating, have been developed to prepare mesoporous/nanoporous metals. Micelle assembly, typically involved in soft-templates, is flexible and convenient for such purposes. It is, however, difficult to control, and the ordering is significantly destroyed during the metal deposition process, which is detrimental when it comes to designing precisely mesostructured materials. In the present work, mesoporous Pd films were uniformly electrodeposited using a nonionic surfactant, triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide), as a pore-directing agent. The interaction between micelles and metal precursors greatly influences the metal growth and determines the final structure. The water-coordinated species interact with the ethylene oxide moiety of the micelles to effectively drive the Pd(II) species toward the working electrode surface. From small-angle neutron scattering data, it is found that spherical P123 micelles, with an average diameter of ∼14 nm, are formed in the electrolyte, and the addition of Pd ions does not significantly modify their structure, which is the essence of the micelle assembly approach. The uniformly sized mesopores are formed over the entire mesoporous Pd film and have an average pore diameter of 10.9 nm. Cross-sectional observation of the film also shows mesopores spanning continuously from the bottom to the top of the film. The crystallinity, crystal phase, and electronic coordination state of the Pd film are also confirmed. Through this study, it is found that the optimized surfactant concentration and applied deposition potential are the key factors to govern the formation of homogeneous and well-distributed pores over the entire film. Interestingly, the as-prepared mesoporous Pd films exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction by fully utilizing the accessible active surface area. Our approach combines electrochemistry with colloidal and coordination chemistry and is widely applicable to other promising metals and alloy electrocatalysts.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6405-6413
    Number of pages9
    JournalChemistry of Materials
    Volume29
    Issue number15
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug 8

    Fingerprint

    Micelles
    Metals
    Polyethylene oxides
    Polypropylene oxides
    Ethylene Oxide
    Electrocatalysts
    Nonionic surfactants
    Electrochemistry
    Neutron scattering
    Surface-Active Agents
    Electrolytes
    Block copolymers
    Catalyst activity
    Ethylene
    Surface active agents
    Ethanol
    Ions
    Oxidation
    Crystals
    Electrodes

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemistry(all)
    • Chemical Engineering(all)
    • Materials Chemistry

    Cite this

    Iqbal, M., Li, C., Wood, K., Jiang, B., Takei, T., Dag, Ö., ... Yamauchi, Y. (2017). Continuous Mesoporous Pd Films by Electrochemical Deposition in Nonionic Micellar Solution. Chemistry of Materials, 29(15), 6405-6413. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b01811

    Continuous Mesoporous Pd Films by Electrochemical Deposition in Nonionic Micellar Solution. / Iqbal, Muhammad; Li, Cuiling; Wood, Kathleen; Jiang, Bo; Takei, Toshiaki; Dag, Ömer; Baba, Daisuke; Nugraha, Asep Sugih; Asahi, Toru; Whitten, Andrew E.; Hossain, Md Shahriar A.; Malgras, Victor; Yamauchi, Yusuke.

    In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 29, No. 15, 08.08.2017, p. 6405-6413.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Iqbal, M, Li, C, Wood, K, Jiang, B, Takei, T, Dag, Ö, Baba, D, Nugraha, AS, Asahi, T, Whitten, AE, Hossain, MSA, Malgras, V & Yamauchi, Y 2017, 'Continuous Mesoporous Pd Films by Electrochemical Deposition in Nonionic Micellar Solution', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 6405-6413. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b01811
    Iqbal, Muhammad ; Li, Cuiling ; Wood, Kathleen ; Jiang, Bo ; Takei, Toshiaki ; Dag, Ömer ; Baba, Daisuke ; Nugraha, Asep Sugih ; Asahi, Toru ; Whitten, Andrew E. ; Hossain, Md Shahriar A. ; Malgras, Victor ; Yamauchi, Yusuke. / Continuous Mesoporous Pd Films by Electrochemical Deposition in Nonionic Micellar Solution. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2017 ; Vol. 29, No. 15. pp. 6405-6413.
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