By implanting protons into a cladding in the coupling region of a directional coupler of the planar-lightwave-circuit type at an acceleration energy that enables the protons to reach the center of the core, the coupling ratio of the coupler is changed periodically and continuously by increasing proton fluence. In the case of two optical waveguides formed in a planar lightwave circuit with a mutual spacing too large for optical coupling, proton implantation into the cladding between the waveguides induces optical coupling between them. These results indicate that the coupling ratio of a directional coupler can be controlled by ion implantation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)