Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole

Michael H. Allen, Sean T. Hemp, Adam E. Smith, Timothy Edward Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the unprecedented controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole (4VIM). Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) of 4VIM in glacial acetic acid afforded homopolymers with well-defined molecular weights and narrow polydispersity indices (PDIs). The polymerizations in acetic acid mediated with 4-cyano-4-(ethylsulfanylthiocarbonylsulfanyl) pentanoic acid (CEP) displayed linear pseudo-first-order kinetics and linear molecular weight growth with monomer conversion. Systematic variation of numerous polymerization parameters included solvent composition, initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and the calculated degree of polymerization. Aqueous size exclusion chromatography (SEC) confirmed linear molecular weight growth to number-average molecular weights (M n) of 65000 g/mol with low PDIs (<1.20). Subsequent monomer addition confirmed the presence of the trithiocarbonate functionality at the chain ends, which provided further evidence of controlled polymerization conditions. Polymerizations in traditional aqueous RAFT solvents (acidic buffers) failed to achieve controlled molecular weight growth. Effectively controlling 4VIM homopolymerizations enables the design of amphoteric block copolymers for emerging applications including nucleic acid delivery and electroactive membranes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3669-3676
Number of pages8
JournalMacromolecules
Volume45
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 May 8
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Free radical polymerization
Molecular weight
Polymerization
Monomers
Polydispersity
Homopolymerization
Acetic acid
Acetic Acid
Pentanoic Acids
Size exclusion chromatography
Nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
Block copolymers
Buffers
Membranes
Kinetics
Acids
Chemical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

Allen, M. H., Hemp, S. T., Smith, A. E., & Long, T. E. (2012). Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole. Macromolecules, 45(9), 3669-3676. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma300543h

Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole. / Allen, Michael H.; Hemp, Sean T.; Smith, Adam E.; Long, Timothy Edward.

In: Macromolecules, Vol. 45, No. 9, 08.05.2012, p. 3669-3676.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Allen, MH, Hemp, ST, Smith, AE & Long, TE 2012, 'Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole', Macromolecules, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 3669-3676. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma300543h
Allen MH, Hemp ST, Smith AE, Long TE. Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole. Macromolecules. 2012 May 8;45(9):3669-3676. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma300543h
Allen, Michael H. ; Hemp, Sean T. ; Smith, Adam E. ; Long, Timothy Edward. / Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylimidazole. In: Macromolecules. 2012 ; Vol. 45, No. 9. pp. 3669-3676.
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