The kinesin molecular motor moves unidirectionally along microtubules that serve as filamentous tracks. Unidirectional, one-dimensional movement of microtubules was achieved by fabricating micrometer-scaled troughs on glass surfaces and by adding arrowhead-shaped patterns to the trough. The gliding bacterium Mycoplasma mobile is another attractive material of nanoactuators. It was possible to make the cells move unidirectionally along lithographic tracks by taking advantage of their ability to move along walls of lithographic patterns.
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