This is a status report on our endeavor to reveal the mechanism of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) by large-scale numerical simulations. Multi-dimensionality of the supernova engine, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, energy and lepton number transport by neutrinos emitted from the forming neutron star, aswell as nuclear interactions there, are all believed to play crucial roles in repelling infalling matter and producing energetic explosions. These ingredients are non-linearly coupled with one another in the dynamics of core collapse, bounce, and shock expansion. Serious quantitative studies of CCSNe hence make extensive numerical computations mandatory. Since neutrinos are neither in thermal nor in chemical equilibrium in general, their distributions in the phase space should be computed. This is a six-dimensional (6D) neutrino transport problem and quite a challenge, even for those with access to the most advanced numerical resources such as the "K computer". To tackle this problem, we have embarked on efforts on multiple fronts. In particular, we report in this paper our recent progresses in the treatment of multidimensional (multi-D) radiation hydrodynamics. We are currently proceeding on two different paths to the ultimate goal. In one approach, we employ an approximate but highly efficient scheme for neutrino transport and treat 3D hydrodynamics and/or general relativity rigorously; some neutrino-driven explosions will be presented and quantitative comparisons will be made between 2D and 3D models. In the second approach, on the other hand, exact, but so far Newtonian, Boltzmann equations are solved in two and three spatial dimensions; we will show some example test simulations. We will also address the perspectives of exascale computations on the next generation supercomputers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)