Correlation of electrical and optical properties in dually Cd+ and N+ ion-implanted GaAs

M. Kotani, Y. Makita, Y. Kawasumi, S. Kimura, D. S. Jiang, T. Shima, T. Iida, Naoto Kobayashi, T. Tsukamoto, N. Koura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cd in GaAs is an acceptor atom and has the largest atomic diameter among the four commonly-used group-II shallow acceptor impurities (Be, Mg, Zn and Cd). The activation energy of Cd (34.7 meV) is also the largest one in the above four impurities. When Cd is doped by ion implantation, the effects of lattice distortion are expected to be apparently different from those samples ion-implanted by acceptor impurities with smaller atomic diameter. In order to compensate the lattice expansion and simultaneously to adjust the crystal stoichiometry, dual incorporation of Cd and nitrogen (N) was carried out into GaAs. Ion implantation of Cd was made at room temperature, using three energies (400 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV) to establish a flat distribution. The spatial profile of N atoms was adjusted so as to match that of Cd ones. The concentration of Cd and N atoms, [Cd] and [N] varied between 1 × 1016 cm-3 and 1 × 1020 cm-3. Two type of samples, i.e., solely Cd+ ion-implanted and dually (Cd+ + N+) ion-implanted with [Cd] = [N] were prepared. For characterization, Hall effects and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed at room temperature and 2 K, respectively. Hall effects measurements revealed that for dually ion-implanted samples, the highest activation efficiency was ∼ 40% for [Cd] (= [N]) = 1 × 1018 cm-3. PL measurements indicated that [g-g] and [g-g]i (i = 2, 3, α, β, ...), the emissions due to the multiple energy levels of acceptor-acceptor pairs are significantly suppressed by the incorporation of N atoms. For [Cd] = [N] ≥ 1 × 1019 cm-3, a moderately deep emission denoted by (Cd, N) is formed at around 1.45-1.41 eV. PL measurements using a Ge detector indicated that (Cd, N) is increasingly red-shifted in energy and its intensity is enhanced with increasing [Cd] = [N]. (Cd, N) becomes a dominant emission for [Cd] = [N] = 1 × 1020 cm-3. The steep reduction of net hole carrier concentration observed for [Cd]/[N] ≤ 1 was ascribed to the formation of (Cd, N) which is presumed to be a novel radiative complex center between acceptor and isoelectronic atoms in GaAs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-455
Number of pages5
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Volume127-128
Publication statusPublished - 1997 May
Externally publishedYes

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Electric properties
Optical properties
electrical properties
Ions
optical properties
Atoms
Photoluminescence
atoms
Hall effect
Impurities
ions
photoluminescence
Ion implantation
impurities
ion implantation
room temperature
Crystal lattices
Stoichiometry
Electron energy levels
Carrier concentration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Instrumentation
  • Surfaces and Interfaces

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Correlation of electrical and optical properties in dually Cd+ and N+ ion-implanted GaAs. / Kotani, M.; Makita, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Kimura, S.; Jiang, D. S.; Shima, T.; Iida, T.; Kobayashi, Naoto; Tsukamoto, T.; Koura, N.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 127-128, 05.1997, p. 451-455.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kotani, M. ; Makita, Y. ; Kawasumi, Y. ; Kimura, S. ; Jiang, D. S. ; Shima, T. ; Iida, T. ; Kobayashi, Naoto ; Tsukamoto, T. ; Koura, N. / Correlation of electrical and optical properties in dually Cd+ and N+ ion-implanted GaAs. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 1997 ; Vol. 127-128. pp. 451-455.
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abstract = "Cd in GaAs is an acceptor atom and has the largest atomic diameter among the four commonly-used group-II shallow acceptor impurities (Be, Mg, Zn and Cd). The activation energy of Cd (34.7 meV) is also the largest one in the above four impurities. When Cd is doped by ion implantation, the effects of lattice distortion are expected to be apparently different from those samples ion-implanted by acceptor impurities with smaller atomic diameter. In order to compensate the lattice expansion and simultaneously to adjust the crystal stoichiometry, dual incorporation of Cd and nitrogen (N) was carried out into GaAs. Ion implantation of Cd was made at room temperature, using three energies (400 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV) to establish a flat distribution. The spatial profile of N atoms was adjusted so as to match that of Cd ones. The concentration of Cd and N atoms, [Cd] and [N] varied between 1 × 1016 cm-3 and 1 × 1020 cm-3. Two type of samples, i.e., solely Cd+ ion-implanted and dually (Cd+ + N+) ion-implanted with [Cd] = [N] were prepared. For characterization, Hall effects and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed at room temperature and 2 K, respectively. Hall effects measurements revealed that for dually ion-implanted samples, the highest activation efficiency was ∼ 40{\%} for [Cd] (= [N]) = 1 × 1018 cm-3. PL measurements indicated that [g-g] and [g-g]i (i = 2, 3, α, β, ...), the emissions due to the multiple energy levels of acceptor-acceptor pairs are significantly suppressed by the incorporation of N atoms. For [Cd] = [N] ≥ 1 × 1019 cm-3, a moderately deep emission denoted by (Cd, N) is formed at around 1.45-1.41 eV. PL measurements using a Ge detector indicated that (Cd, N) is increasingly red-shifted in energy and its intensity is enhanced with increasing [Cd] = [N]. (Cd, N) becomes a dominant emission for [Cd] = [N] = 1 × 1020 cm-3. The steep reduction of net hole carrier concentration observed for [Cd]/[N] ≤ 1 was ascribed to the formation of (Cd, N) which is presumed to be a novel radiative complex center between acceptor and isoelectronic atoms in GaAs.",
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T1 - Correlation of electrical and optical properties in dually Cd+ and N+ ion-implanted GaAs

AU - Kotani, M.

AU - Makita, Y.

AU - Kawasumi, Y.

AU - Kimura, S.

AU - Jiang, D. S.

AU - Shima, T.

AU - Iida, T.

AU - Kobayashi, Naoto

AU - Tsukamoto, T.

AU - Koura, N.

PY - 1997/5

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N2 - Cd in GaAs is an acceptor atom and has the largest atomic diameter among the four commonly-used group-II shallow acceptor impurities (Be, Mg, Zn and Cd). The activation energy of Cd (34.7 meV) is also the largest one in the above four impurities. When Cd is doped by ion implantation, the effects of lattice distortion are expected to be apparently different from those samples ion-implanted by acceptor impurities with smaller atomic diameter. In order to compensate the lattice expansion and simultaneously to adjust the crystal stoichiometry, dual incorporation of Cd and nitrogen (N) was carried out into GaAs. Ion implantation of Cd was made at room temperature, using three energies (400 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV) to establish a flat distribution. The spatial profile of N atoms was adjusted so as to match that of Cd ones. The concentration of Cd and N atoms, [Cd] and [N] varied between 1 × 1016 cm-3 and 1 × 1020 cm-3. Two type of samples, i.e., solely Cd+ ion-implanted and dually (Cd+ + N+) ion-implanted with [Cd] = [N] were prepared. For characterization, Hall effects and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed at room temperature and 2 K, respectively. Hall effects measurements revealed that for dually ion-implanted samples, the highest activation efficiency was ∼ 40% for [Cd] (= [N]) = 1 × 1018 cm-3. PL measurements indicated that [g-g] and [g-g]i (i = 2, 3, α, β, ...), the emissions due to the multiple energy levels of acceptor-acceptor pairs are significantly suppressed by the incorporation of N atoms. For [Cd] = [N] ≥ 1 × 1019 cm-3, a moderately deep emission denoted by (Cd, N) is formed at around 1.45-1.41 eV. PL measurements using a Ge detector indicated that (Cd, N) is increasingly red-shifted in energy and its intensity is enhanced with increasing [Cd] = [N]. (Cd, N) becomes a dominant emission for [Cd] = [N] = 1 × 1020 cm-3. The steep reduction of net hole carrier concentration observed for [Cd]/[N] ≤ 1 was ascribed to the formation of (Cd, N) which is presumed to be a novel radiative complex center between acceptor and isoelectronic atoms in GaAs.

AB - Cd in GaAs is an acceptor atom and has the largest atomic diameter among the four commonly-used group-II shallow acceptor impurities (Be, Mg, Zn and Cd). The activation energy of Cd (34.7 meV) is also the largest one in the above four impurities. When Cd is doped by ion implantation, the effects of lattice distortion are expected to be apparently different from those samples ion-implanted by acceptor impurities with smaller atomic diameter. In order to compensate the lattice expansion and simultaneously to adjust the crystal stoichiometry, dual incorporation of Cd and nitrogen (N) was carried out into GaAs. Ion implantation of Cd was made at room temperature, using three energies (400 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV) to establish a flat distribution. The spatial profile of N atoms was adjusted so as to match that of Cd ones. The concentration of Cd and N atoms, [Cd] and [N] varied between 1 × 1016 cm-3 and 1 × 1020 cm-3. Two type of samples, i.e., solely Cd+ ion-implanted and dually (Cd+ + N+) ion-implanted with [Cd] = [N] were prepared. For characterization, Hall effects and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed at room temperature and 2 K, respectively. Hall effects measurements revealed that for dually ion-implanted samples, the highest activation efficiency was ∼ 40% for [Cd] (= [N]) = 1 × 1018 cm-3. PL measurements indicated that [g-g] and [g-g]i (i = 2, 3, α, β, ...), the emissions due to the multiple energy levels of acceptor-acceptor pairs are significantly suppressed by the incorporation of N atoms. For [Cd] = [N] ≥ 1 × 1019 cm-3, a moderately deep emission denoted by (Cd, N) is formed at around 1.45-1.41 eV. PL measurements using a Ge detector indicated that (Cd, N) is increasingly red-shifted in energy and its intensity is enhanced with increasing [Cd] = [N]. (Cd, N) becomes a dominant emission for [Cd] = [N] = 1 × 1020 cm-3. The steep reduction of net hole carrier concentration observed for [Cd]/[N] ≤ 1 was ascribed to the formation of (Cd, N) which is presumed to be a novel radiative complex center between acceptor and isoelectronic atoms in GaAs.

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