Cost-efficient strategy for reducing PM 2.5 levels in the Tokyo metropolitan area: An integrated approach with air quality and economic models

Yushi Kunugi, Toshihide Arimura, Kazuyuki Iwata, Eiji Komatsu, Yoshie Hirayama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


To attain cleaner air, it is important that authorities make informed decisions when selecting a strategy. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) are high in the Tokyo metropolitan area, even though concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10) have dropped dramatically since the implementation of the NOx-PM Act. Currently, monitored concentration levels continue to exceed the designated ambient air quality standard set by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. To our knowledge, no study has investigated a cost-efficient strategy for reducing PM 2.5 concentration levels in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This is the first study to examine a proper control strategy for Japan by developing an integrated model that includes both aerosol and economic models. The simulation results show that prefectures in the Tokyo metropolitan area cannot achieve the standards by relying on their own efforts to reduce PM 2.5. That is, prefectural governments in the Tokyo metropolitan areas need to cooperate with prefectures outside of the area to improve their PM 2.5 concentration levels. Thus, we simulated policies under the assumption that emissions from other sources are reduced to levels such that the PM 2.5 concentration declines by approximately 18 μg/m3. We first simulated an efficient policy, i.e., the implementation of a pollution tax. We found that the total abatement cost to meet the air quality standard using the cost-efficient strategy is approximately 142.7 billion yen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0207623
JournalPLoS One
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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