Cultural Differences Between Japan and the United States in Uses of "Apology" and "Thank You" in Favor Asking Messages

Hye Eun Lee, Hee Sun Park, Tatsuya Imai, Daniel P. Dolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Three studies investigated whether apologies and thanks are used differently when asking favors in the United States and Japan and examined whether their use makes a favor asking message less face-threatening. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) composed an email message for a favor asking situation. Next, participants in Study 2 (N = 634) and Study 3 (N = 417) completed one of four versions of a questionnaire regarding a prototype of an email message. Results showed that (a) more Japanese included apologies in their messages while more Americans used thanks and (b) Japanese considered apologies to reduce some face threats while Americans did not consider thanks to reduce face threats. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-289
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Language and Social Psychology
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Sep

Fingerprint

cultural difference
Japan
threat
questionnaire
Apology
Cultural Differences
Electronic Mail
Face Threat
Direction compound
Surveys and Questionnaires
Questionnaire
Prototype

Keywords

  • apology
  • cross-cultural research
  • culture
  • face
  • gratitude

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Linguistics and Language
  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Language and Linguistics

Cite this

Cultural Differences Between Japan and the United States in Uses of "Apology" and "Thank You" in Favor Asking Messages. / Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun; Imai, Tatsuya; Dolan, Daniel P.

In: Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 3, 09.2012, p. 263-289.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8f9b9886e92f4dfc8c460386d29c47bd,
title = "Cultural Differences Between Japan and the United States in Uses of {"}Apology{"} and {"}Thank You{"} in Favor Asking Messages",
abstract = "Three studies investigated whether apologies and thanks are used differently when asking favors in the United States and Japan and examined whether their use makes a favor asking message less face-threatening. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) composed an email message for a favor asking situation. Next, participants in Study 2 (N = 634) and Study 3 (N = 417) completed one of four versions of a questionnaire regarding a prototype of an email message. Results showed that (a) more Japanese included apologies in their messages while more Americans used thanks and (b) Japanese considered apologies to reduce some face threats while Americans did not consider thanks to reduce face threats. Implications and future research directions are discussed.",
keywords = "apology, cross-cultural research, culture, face, gratitude",
author = "Lee, {Hye Eun} and Park, {Hee Sun} and Tatsuya Imai and Dolan, {Daniel P.}",
year = "2012",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1177/0261927X12446595",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "263--289",
journal = "Journal of Language and Social Psychology",
issn = "0261-927X",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cultural Differences Between Japan and the United States in Uses of "Apology" and "Thank You" in Favor Asking Messages

AU - Lee, Hye Eun

AU - Park, Hee Sun

AU - Imai, Tatsuya

AU - Dolan, Daniel P.

PY - 2012/9

Y1 - 2012/9

N2 - Three studies investigated whether apologies and thanks are used differently when asking favors in the United States and Japan and examined whether their use makes a favor asking message less face-threatening. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) composed an email message for a favor asking situation. Next, participants in Study 2 (N = 634) and Study 3 (N = 417) completed one of four versions of a questionnaire regarding a prototype of an email message. Results showed that (a) more Japanese included apologies in their messages while more Americans used thanks and (b) Japanese considered apologies to reduce some face threats while Americans did not consider thanks to reduce face threats. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

AB - Three studies investigated whether apologies and thanks are used differently when asking favors in the United States and Japan and examined whether their use makes a favor asking message less face-threatening. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) composed an email message for a favor asking situation. Next, participants in Study 2 (N = 634) and Study 3 (N = 417) completed one of four versions of a questionnaire regarding a prototype of an email message. Results showed that (a) more Japanese included apologies in their messages while more Americans used thanks and (b) Japanese considered apologies to reduce some face threats while Americans did not consider thanks to reduce face threats. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

KW - apology

KW - cross-cultural research

KW - culture

KW - face

KW - gratitude

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84864804096&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84864804096&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0261927X12446595

DO - 10.1177/0261927X12446595

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84864804096

VL - 31

SP - 263

EP - 289

JO - Journal of Language and Social Psychology

JF - Journal of Language and Social Psychology

SN - 0261-927X

IS - 3

ER -