Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

Christian Tamburini, Miquel Canals, Xavier Durrieu de Madron, Loïc Houpert, Dominique Lefèvre, Séverine Martini, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Anne Robert, Pierre Testor, Juan Antonio Aguilar, Imen Al Samarai, Arnaud Albert, Michel André, Marco Anghinolfi, Gisela Anton, Shebli Anvar, Miguel Ardid, Ana Carolina Assis Jesus, Tri L. Astraatmadja, Jean Jacques AubertBruny Baret, Stéphane Basa, Vincent Bertin, Simone Biagi, Armando Bigi, Ciro Bigongiari, Claudio Bogazzi, Manuel Bou-Cabo, Boutayeb Bouhou, Mieke C. Bouwhuis, Jurgen Brunner, José Busto, Francisco Camarena, Antonio Capone, Christina Cârloganu, Giada Carminati, John Carr, Stefano Cecchini, Ziad Charif, Philippe Charvis, Tommaso Chiarusi, Marco Circella, Rosa Coniglione, Heide Costantini, Paschal Coyle, Christian Curtil, Patrick Decowski, Ivan Dekeyser, Anne Deschamps, Corinne Donzaud, Damien Dornic, Hasankiadeh Q. Dorosti, Doriane Drouhin, Thomas Eberl, Umberto Emanuele, Jean Pierre Ernenwein, Stéphanie Escoffier, Paolo Fermani, Marcelino Ferri, Vincenzo Flaminio, Florian Folger, Ulf Fritsch, Jean Luc Fuda, Salvatore Galatà, Pascal Gay, Giorgio Giacomelli, Valentina Giordano, Juan Pablo Gómez-González, Kay Graf, Goulven Guillard, Garadeb Halladjian, Gregory Hallewell, Hans van Haren, Joris Hartman, Aart J. Heijboer, Yann Hello, Juan Jose Hernández-Rey, Bjoern Herold, Jurgen Hößl, Ching Cheng Hsu, Marteen de Jong, Matthias Kadler, Oleg Kalekin, Alexander Kappes, Uli Katz, Oksana Kavatsyuk, Paul Kooijman, Claudio Kopper, Antoine Kouchner, Ingo Kreykenbohm, Vladimir Kulikovskiy, Robert Lahmann, Patrick Lamare, Giuseppina Larosa, Dario Lattuada, Gordon Lim, Domenico Lo Presti, Herbert Loehner, Sotiris Loucatos, Salvatore Mangano, Michel Marcelin, Annarita Margiotta, Juan Antonio Martinez-Mora, Athina Meli, Teresa Montaruli, Luciano Moscoso, Holger Martin Motz, Max Neff, Emma nuel Nezri, Dimitris Palioselitis, Gabriela E. Pǎvǎlaş, Kevin Payet, Patrice Payre, Jelena Petrovic, Paolo Piattelli, Nicolas Picot-Clemente, Vlad Popa, Thierry Pradier, Eleonora Presani, Chantal Racca, Corey Reed, Giorgio Riccobene, Carsten Richardt, Roland Richter, Colas Rivière, Kathrin Roensch, Andrei Rostovtsev, Joaquin Ruiz-Rivas, Marius Rujoiu, Valerio G. Russo, Francisco Salesa, Augustin Sánchez-Losa, Piera Sapienza, Friederike Schöck, Jean Pierre Schuller, Fabian Schussler, Rezo Shanidze, Francesco Simeone, Andreas Spies, Maurizio Spurio, Jos J M Steijger, Thierry Stolarczyk, Mauro G F Taiuti, Simona Toscano, Bertrand Vallage, Véronique Van Elewyck, Giulia Vannoni, Manuela Vecchi, Pascal Vernin, Guus Wijnker, Jorn Wilms, Els de Wolf, Harold Yepes, Dmitry Zaborov, Juan De Dios Zornoza, Juan Zúñiga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere67523
JournalPLoS One
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jul 10
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bioluminescence
bioluminescence
Oceans and Seas
oceans
Ecosystems
Water
ecosystems
water
Ecosystem
Panthera leo
Convection
Light emission
organisms
Global warming
Observatories
Bioactivity
Mediterranean Sea
Telescopes
Biological materials
global warming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Tamburini, C., Canals, M., Durrieu de Madron, X., Houpert, L., Lefèvre, D., Martini, S., ... Zúñiga, J. (2013). Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface. PLoS One, 8(7), [e67523]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067523

Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface. / Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Aubert, Jean Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C.; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J.; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Moscoso, Luciano; Motz, Holger Martin; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Pǎvǎlaş, Gabriela E.; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G.; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J M; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G F; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 8, No. 7, e67523, 10.07.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tamburini, C, Canals, M, Durrieu de Madron, X, Houpert, L, Lefèvre, D, Martini, S, D'Ortenzio, F, Robert, A, Testor, P, Aguilar, JA, Samarai, IA, Albert, A, André, M, Anghinolfi, M, Anton, G, Anvar, S, Ardid, M, Jesus, ACA, Astraatmadja, TL, Aubert, JJ, Baret, B, Basa, S, Bertin, V, Biagi, S, Bigi, A, Bigongiari, C, Bogazzi, C, Bou-Cabo, M, Bouhou, B, Bouwhuis, MC, Brunner, J, Busto, J, Camarena, F, Capone, A, Cârloganu, C, Carminati, G, Carr, J, Cecchini, S, Charif, Z, Charvis, P, Chiarusi, T, Circella, M, Coniglione, R, Costantini, H, Coyle, P, Curtil, C, Decowski, P, Dekeyser, I, Deschamps, A, Donzaud, C, Dornic, D, Dorosti, HQ, Drouhin, D, Eberl, T, Emanuele, U, Ernenwein, JP, Escoffier, S, Fermani, P, Ferri, M, Flaminio, V, Folger, F, Fritsch, U, Fuda, JL, Galatà, S, Gay, P, Giacomelli, G, Giordano, V, Gómez-González, JP, Graf, K, Guillard, G, Halladjian, G, Hallewell, G, van Haren, H, Hartman, J, Heijboer, AJ, Hello, Y, Hernández-Rey, JJ, Herold, B, Hößl, J, Hsu, CC, de Jong, M, Kadler, M, Kalekin, O, Kappes, A, Katz, U, Kavatsyuk, O, Kooijman, P, Kopper, C, Kouchner, A, Kreykenbohm, I, Kulikovskiy, V, Lahmann, R, Lamare, P, Larosa, G, Lattuada, D, Lim, G, Presti, DL, Loehner, H, Loucatos, S, Mangano, S, Marcelin, M, Margiotta, A, Martinez-Mora, JA, Meli, A, Montaruli, T, Moscoso, L, Motz, HM, Neff, M, Nezri, EN, Palioselitis, D, Pǎvǎlaş, GE, Payet, K, Payre, P, Petrovic, J, Piattelli, P, Picot-Clemente, N, Popa, V, Pradier, T, Presani, E, Racca, C, Reed, C, Riccobene, G, Richardt, C, Richter, R, Rivière, C, Roensch, K, Rostovtsev, A, Ruiz-Rivas, J, Rujoiu, M, Russo, VG, Salesa, F, Sánchez-Losa, A, Sapienza, P, Schöck, F, Schuller, JP, Schussler, F, Shanidze, R, Simeone, F, Spies, A, Spurio, M, Steijger, JJM, Stolarczyk, T, Taiuti, MGF, Toscano, S, Vallage, B, Van Elewyck, V, Vannoni, G, Vecchi, M, Vernin, P, Wijnker, G, Wilms, J, de Wolf, E, Yepes, H, Zaborov, D, De Dios Zornoza, J & Zúñiga, J 2013, 'Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface', PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 7, e67523. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067523
Tamburini C, Canals M, Durrieu de Madron X, Houpert L, Lefèvre D, Martini S et al. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 10;8(7). e67523. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067523
Tamburini, Christian ; Canals, Miquel ; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier ; Houpert, Loïc ; Lefèvre, Dominique ; Martini, Séverine ; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio ; Robert, Anne ; Testor, Pierre ; Aguilar, Juan Antonio ; Samarai, Imen Al ; Albert, Arnaud ; André, Michel ; Anghinolfi, Marco ; Anton, Gisela ; Anvar, Shebli ; Ardid, Miguel ; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis ; Astraatmadja, Tri L. ; Aubert, Jean Jacques ; Baret, Bruny ; Basa, Stéphane ; Bertin, Vincent ; Biagi, Simone ; Bigi, Armando ; Bigongiari, Ciro ; Bogazzi, Claudio ; Bou-Cabo, Manuel ; Bouhou, Boutayeb ; Bouwhuis, Mieke C. ; Brunner, Jurgen ; Busto, José ; Camarena, Francisco ; Capone, Antonio ; Cârloganu, Christina ; Carminati, Giada ; Carr, John ; Cecchini, Stefano ; Charif, Ziad ; Charvis, Philippe ; Chiarusi, Tommaso ; Circella, Marco ; Coniglione, Rosa ; Costantini, Heide ; Coyle, Paschal ; Curtil, Christian ; Decowski, Patrick ; Dekeyser, Ivan ; Deschamps, Anne ; Donzaud, Corinne ; Dornic, Damien ; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q. ; Drouhin, Doriane ; Eberl, Thomas ; Emanuele, Umberto ; Ernenwein, Jean Pierre ; Escoffier, Stéphanie ; Fermani, Paolo ; Ferri, Marcelino ; Flaminio, Vincenzo ; Folger, Florian ; Fritsch, Ulf ; Fuda, Jean Luc ; Galatà, Salvatore ; Gay, Pascal ; Giacomelli, Giorgio ; Giordano, Valentina ; Gómez-González, Juan Pablo ; Graf, Kay ; Guillard, Goulven ; Halladjian, Garadeb ; Hallewell, Gregory ; van Haren, Hans ; Hartman, Joris ; Heijboer, Aart J. ; Hello, Yann ; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose ; Herold, Bjoern ; Hößl, Jurgen ; Hsu, Ching Cheng ; de Jong, Marteen ; Kadler, Matthias ; Kalekin, Oleg ; Kappes, Alexander ; Katz, Uli ; Kavatsyuk, Oksana ; Kooijman, Paul ; Kopper, Claudio ; Kouchner, Antoine ; Kreykenbohm, Ingo ; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir ; Lahmann, Robert ; Lamare, Patrick ; Larosa, Giuseppina ; Lattuada, Dario ; Lim, Gordon ; Presti, Domenico Lo ; Loehner, Herbert ; Loucatos, Sotiris ; Mangano, Salvatore ; Marcelin, Michel ; Margiotta, Annarita ; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio ; Meli, Athina ; Montaruli, Teresa ; Moscoso, Luciano ; Motz, Holger Martin ; Neff, Max ; Nezri, Emma nuel ; Palioselitis, Dimitris ; Pǎvǎlaş, Gabriela E. ; Payet, Kevin ; Payre, Patrice ; Petrovic, Jelena ; Piattelli, Paolo ; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas ; Popa, Vlad ; Pradier, Thierry ; Presani, Eleonora ; Racca, Chantal ; Reed, Corey ; Riccobene, Giorgio ; Richardt, Carsten ; Richter, Roland ; Rivière, Colas ; Roensch, Kathrin ; Rostovtsev, Andrei ; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin ; Rujoiu, Marius ; Russo, Valerio G. ; Salesa, Francisco ; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin ; Sapienza, Piera ; Schöck, Friederike ; Schuller, Jean Pierre ; Schussler, Fabian ; Shanidze, Rezo ; Simeone, Francesco ; Spies, Andreas ; Spurio, Maurizio ; Steijger, Jos J M ; Stolarczyk, Thierry ; Taiuti, Mauro G F ; Toscano, Simona ; Vallage, Bertrand ; Van Elewyck, Véronique ; Vannoni, Giulia ; Vecchi, Manuela ; Vernin, Pascal ; Wijnker, Guus ; Wilms, Jorn ; de Wolf, Els ; Yepes, Harold ; Zaborov, Dmitry ; De Dios Zornoza, Juan ; Zúñiga, Juan. / Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface. In: PLoS One. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 7.
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title = "Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface",
abstract = "The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as {"}open-sea convection{"}. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.",
author = "Christian Tamburini and Miquel Canals and {Durrieu de Madron}, Xavier and Lo{\"i}c Houpert and Dominique Lef{\`e}vre and S{\'e}verine Martini and Fabrizio D'Ortenzio and Anne Robert and Pierre Testor and Aguilar, {Juan Antonio} and Samarai, {Imen Al} and Arnaud Albert and Michel Andr{\'e} and Marco Anghinolfi and Gisela Anton and Shebli Anvar and Miguel Ardid and Jesus, {Ana Carolina Assis} and Astraatmadja, {Tri L.} and Aubert, {Jean Jacques} and Bruny Baret and St{\'e}phane Basa and Vincent Bertin and Simone Biagi and Armando Bigi and Ciro Bigongiari and Claudio Bogazzi and Manuel Bou-Cabo and Boutayeb Bouhou and Bouwhuis, {Mieke C.} and Jurgen Brunner and Jos{\'e} Busto and Francisco Camarena and Antonio Capone and Christina C{\^a}rloganu and Giada Carminati and John Carr and Stefano Cecchini and Ziad Charif and Philippe Charvis and Tommaso Chiarusi and Marco Circella and Rosa Coniglione and Heide Costantini and Paschal Coyle and Christian Curtil and Patrick Decowski and Ivan Dekeyser and Anne Deschamps and Corinne Donzaud and Damien Dornic and Dorosti, {Hasankiadeh Q.} and Doriane Drouhin and Thomas Eberl and Umberto Emanuele and Ernenwein, {Jean Pierre} and St{\'e}phanie Escoffier and Paolo Fermani and Marcelino Ferri and Vincenzo Flaminio and Florian Folger and Ulf Fritsch and Fuda, {Jean Luc} and Salvatore Galat{\`a} and Pascal Gay and Giorgio Giacomelli and Valentina Giordano and G{\'o}mez-Gonz{\'a}lez, {Juan Pablo} and Kay Graf and Goulven Guillard and Garadeb Halladjian and Gregory Hallewell and {van Haren}, Hans and Joris Hartman and Heijboer, {Aart J.} and Yann Hello and Hern{\'a}ndez-Rey, {Juan Jose} and Bjoern Herold and Jurgen H{\"o}{\ss}l and Hsu, {Ching Cheng} and {de Jong}, Marteen and Matthias Kadler and Oleg Kalekin and Alexander Kappes and Uli Katz and Oksana Kavatsyuk and Paul Kooijman and Claudio Kopper and Antoine Kouchner and Ingo Kreykenbohm and Vladimir Kulikovskiy and Robert Lahmann and Patrick Lamare and Giuseppina Larosa and Dario Lattuada and Gordon Lim and Presti, {Domenico Lo} and Herbert Loehner and Sotiris Loucatos and Salvatore Mangano and Michel Marcelin and Annarita Margiotta and Martinez-Mora, {Juan Antonio} and Athina Meli and Teresa Montaruli and Luciano Moscoso and Motz, {Holger Martin} and Max Neff and Nezri, {Emma nuel} and Dimitris Palioselitis and Pǎvǎlaş, {Gabriela E.} and Kevin Payet and Patrice Payre and Jelena Petrovic and Paolo Piattelli and Nicolas Picot-Clemente and Vlad Popa and Thierry Pradier and Eleonora Presani and Chantal Racca and Corey Reed and Giorgio Riccobene and Carsten Richardt and Roland Richter and Colas Rivi{\`e}re and Kathrin Roensch and Andrei Rostovtsev and Joaquin Ruiz-Rivas and Marius Rujoiu and Russo, {Valerio G.} and Francisco Salesa and Augustin S{\'a}nchez-Losa and Piera Sapienza and Friederike Sch{\"o}ck and Schuller, {Jean Pierre} and Fabian Schussler and Rezo Shanidze and Francesco Simeone and Andreas Spies and Maurizio Spurio and Steijger, {Jos J M} and Thierry Stolarczyk and Taiuti, {Mauro G F} and Simona Toscano and Bertrand Vallage and {Van Elewyck}, V{\'e}ronique and Giulia Vannoni and Manuela Vecchi and Pascal Vernin and Guus Wijnker and Jorn Wilms and {de Wolf}, Els and Harold Yepes and Dmitry Zaborov and {De Dios Zornoza}, Juan and Juan Z{\'u}{\~n}iga",
year = "2013",
month = "7",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0067523",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "7",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

AU - Tamburini, Christian

AU - Canals, Miquel

AU - Durrieu de Madron, Xavier

AU - Houpert, Loïc

AU - Lefèvre, Dominique

AU - Martini, Séverine

AU - D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio

AU - Robert, Anne

AU - Testor, Pierre

AU - Aguilar, Juan Antonio

AU - Samarai, Imen Al

AU - Albert, Arnaud

AU - André, Michel

AU - Anghinolfi, Marco

AU - Anton, Gisela

AU - Anvar, Shebli

AU - Ardid, Miguel

AU - Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis

AU - Astraatmadja, Tri L.

AU - Aubert, Jean Jacques

AU - Baret, Bruny

AU - Basa, Stéphane

AU - Bertin, Vincent

AU - Biagi, Simone

AU - Bigi, Armando

AU - Bigongiari, Ciro

AU - Bogazzi, Claudio

AU - Bou-Cabo, Manuel

AU - Bouhou, Boutayeb

AU - Bouwhuis, Mieke C.

AU - Brunner, Jurgen

AU - Busto, José

AU - Camarena, Francisco

AU - Capone, Antonio

AU - Cârloganu, Christina

AU - Carminati, Giada

AU - Carr, John

AU - Cecchini, Stefano

AU - Charif, Ziad

AU - Charvis, Philippe

AU - Chiarusi, Tommaso

AU - Circella, Marco

AU - Coniglione, Rosa

AU - Costantini, Heide

AU - Coyle, Paschal

AU - Curtil, Christian

AU - Decowski, Patrick

AU - Dekeyser, Ivan

AU - Deschamps, Anne

AU - Donzaud, Corinne

AU - Dornic, Damien

AU - Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.

AU - Drouhin, Doriane

AU - Eberl, Thomas

AU - Emanuele, Umberto

AU - Ernenwein, Jean Pierre

AU - Escoffier, Stéphanie

AU - Fermani, Paolo

AU - Ferri, Marcelino

AU - Flaminio, Vincenzo

AU - Folger, Florian

AU - Fritsch, Ulf

AU - Fuda, Jean Luc

AU - Galatà, Salvatore

AU - Gay, Pascal

AU - Giacomelli, Giorgio

AU - Giordano, Valentina

AU - Gómez-González, Juan Pablo

AU - Graf, Kay

AU - Guillard, Goulven

AU - Halladjian, Garadeb

AU - Hallewell, Gregory

AU - van Haren, Hans

AU - Hartman, Joris

AU - Heijboer, Aart J.

AU - Hello, Yann

AU - Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose

AU - Herold, Bjoern

AU - Hößl, Jurgen

AU - Hsu, Ching Cheng

AU - de Jong, Marteen

AU - Kadler, Matthias

AU - Kalekin, Oleg

AU - Kappes, Alexander

AU - Katz, Uli

AU - Kavatsyuk, Oksana

AU - Kooijman, Paul

AU - Kopper, Claudio

AU - Kouchner, Antoine

AU - Kreykenbohm, Ingo

AU - Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

AU - Lahmann, Robert

AU - Lamare, Patrick

AU - Larosa, Giuseppina

AU - Lattuada, Dario

AU - Lim, Gordon

AU - Presti, Domenico Lo

AU - Loehner, Herbert

AU - Loucatos, Sotiris

AU - Mangano, Salvatore

AU - Marcelin, Michel

AU - Margiotta, Annarita

AU - Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio

AU - Meli, Athina

AU - Montaruli, Teresa

AU - Moscoso, Luciano

AU - Motz, Holger Martin

AU - Neff, Max

AU - Nezri, Emma nuel

AU - Palioselitis, Dimitris

AU - Pǎvǎlaş, Gabriela E.

AU - Payet, Kevin

AU - Payre, Patrice

AU - Petrovic, Jelena

AU - Piattelli, Paolo

AU - Picot-Clemente, Nicolas

AU - Popa, Vlad

AU - Pradier, Thierry

AU - Presani, Eleonora

AU - Racca, Chantal

AU - Reed, Corey

AU - Riccobene, Giorgio

AU - Richardt, Carsten

AU - Richter, Roland

AU - Rivière, Colas

AU - Roensch, Kathrin

AU - Rostovtsev, Andrei

AU - Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin

AU - Rujoiu, Marius

AU - Russo, Valerio G.

AU - Salesa, Francisco

AU - Sánchez-Losa, Augustin

AU - Sapienza, Piera

AU - Schöck, Friederike

AU - Schuller, Jean Pierre

AU - Schussler, Fabian

AU - Shanidze, Rezo

AU - Simeone, Francesco

AU - Spies, Andreas

AU - Spurio, Maurizio

AU - Steijger, Jos J M

AU - Stolarczyk, Thierry

AU - Taiuti, Mauro G F

AU - Toscano, Simona

AU - Vallage, Bertrand

AU - Van Elewyck, Véronique

AU - Vannoni, Giulia

AU - Vecchi, Manuela

AU - Vernin, Pascal

AU - Wijnker, Guus

AU - Wilms, Jorn

AU - de Wolf, Els

AU - Yepes, Harold

AU - Zaborov, Dmitry

AU - De Dios Zornoza, Juan

AU - Zúñiga, Juan

PY - 2013/7/10

Y1 - 2013/7/10

N2 - The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

AB - The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

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U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0067523

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0067523

M3 - Article

C2 - 23874425

AN - SCOPUS:84880016657

VL - 8

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 7

M1 - e67523

ER -