Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia

Etsuo Uchida, Y. Ogawa, N. Maeda, T. Nakagawa

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    58 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are built mainly of sandstone and laterite. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of sandstone blocks. The sandstone in the monuments can be classified into three types based on the colour, texture, chemical composition and constituent mineral; grey to yellowish brown sandstone, red sandstone and greenish greywacke. The deterioration is distinct in grey to yellowish brown sandstone because of its low compressive strength, high porosity, well developed bedding, and constituent minerals susceptible to alteration such as feldspar and biotite. The main causes of deterioration identified are chemical weathering, efflorescence related to bat guano, and biodeterioration by the growth of trees, algae and lichens. An water supply is also indispensable for deterioration.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)101-112
    Number of pages12
    JournalEngineering Geology
    Volume55
    Issue number1-2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jan

    Fingerprint

    monument
    Sandstone
    Deterioration
    sandstone
    Minerals
    Efflorescence
    guano
    Feldspar
    graywacke
    laterite
    chemical weathering
    mineral
    Algae
    Weathering
    bat
    Water supply
    compressive strength
    lichen
    Compressive strength
    stone

    Keywords

    • Angkor monuments
    • Deterioration
    • Efflorescence
    • P-wave propagation velocity
    • Rebound value
    • Sandstone

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

    Cite this

    Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia. / Uchida, Etsuo; Ogawa, Y.; Maeda, N.; Nakagawa, T.

    In: Engineering Geology, Vol. 55, No. 1-2, 01.2000, p. 101-112.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Uchida, Etsuo ; Ogawa, Y. ; Maeda, N. ; Nakagawa, T. / Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia. In: Engineering Geology. 2000 ; Vol. 55, No. 1-2. pp. 101-112.
    @article{6f659d1a97654fd49497aea742f7d38a,
    title = "Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia",
    abstract = "The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are built mainly of sandstone and laterite. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of sandstone blocks. The sandstone in the monuments can be classified into three types based on the colour, texture, chemical composition and constituent mineral; grey to yellowish brown sandstone, red sandstone and greenish greywacke. The deterioration is distinct in grey to yellowish brown sandstone because of its low compressive strength, high porosity, well developed bedding, and constituent minerals susceptible to alteration such as feldspar and biotite. The main causes of deterioration identified are chemical weathering, efflorescence related to bat guano, and biodeterioration by the growth of trees, algae and lichens. An water supply is also indispensable for deterioration.",
    keywords = "Angkor monuments, Deterioration, Efflorescence, P-wave propagation velocity, Rebound value, Sandstone",
    author = "Etsuo Uchida and Y. Ogawa and N. Maeda and T. Nakagawa",
    year = "2000",
    month = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/S0013-7952(99)00110-6",
    language = "English",
    volume = "55",
    pages = "101--112",
    journal = "Engineering Geology",
    issn = "0013-7952",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "1-2",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia

    AU - Uchida, Etsuo

    AU - Ogawa, Y.

    AU - Maeda, N.

    AU - Nakagawa, T.

    PY - 2000/1

    Y1 - 2000/1

    N2 - The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are built mainly of sandstone and laterite. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of sandstone blocks. The sandstone in the monuments can be classified into three types based on the colour, texture, chemical composition and constituent mineral; grey to yellowish brown sandstone, red sandstone and greenish greywacke. The deterioration is distinct in grey to yellowish brown sandstone because of its low compressive strength, high porosity, well developed bedding, and constituent minerals susceptible to alteration such as feldspar and biotite. The main causes of deterioration identified are chemical weathering, efflorescence related to bat guano, and biodeterioration by the growth of trees, algae and lichens. An water supply is also indispensable for deterioration.

    AB - The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are built mainly of sandstone and laterite. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of sandstone blocks. The sandstone in the monuments can be classified into three types based on the colour, texture, chemical composition and constituent mineral; grey to yellowish brown sandstone, red sandstone and greenish greywacke. The deterioration is distinct in grey to yellowish brown sandstone because of its low compressive strength, high porosity, well developed bedding, and constituent minerals susceptible to alteration such as feldspar and biotite. The main causes of deterioration identified are chemical weathering, efflorescence related to bat guano, and biodeterioration by the growth of trees, algae and lichens. An water supply is also indispensable for deterioration.

    KW - Angkor monuments

    KW - Deterioration

    KW - Efflorescence

    KW - P-wave propagation velocity

    KW - Rebound value

    KW - Sandstone

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034096629&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034096629&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/S0013-7952(99)00110-6

    DO - 10.1016/S0013-7952(99)00110-6

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:0034096629

    VL - 55

    SP - 101

    EP - 112

    JO - Engineering Geology

    JF - Engineering Geology

    SN - 0013-7952

    IS - 1-2

    ER -