Development and application of multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes

Tomonobu Nakayama, Osamu Kubo, Yoshitaka Shingaya, Seiji Higuchi, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Chun Sheng Jiang, Taichi Okuda, Yuji Kuwahara, Kazuhiro Takami, Masakazu Aono

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38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which 2, 3, or 4 scanning tunneling microscope or atomic force microscope probes are operated independently, have been developed. MP-SPMs are helpful to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample and promote research of advanced materials based on nanotechnology. Recent developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1675-1692
Number of pages18
JournalAdvanced Materials
Volume24
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr 3

Keywords

  • carbon nanotubes
  • graphene
  • multiple-probe atomic force microscope
  • multiple-probe scanning tunneling microscope
  • nanoscale electrical conductivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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  • Cite this

    Nakayama, T., Kubo, O., Shingaya, Y., Higuchi, S., Hasegawa, T., Jiang, C. S., Okuda, T., Kuwahara, Y., Takami, K., & Aono, M. (2012). Development and application of multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes. Advanced Materials, 24(13), 1675-1692. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201200257