Development and Validation of the Cognitive Attentional Syndrome Scale 1 Revised–Japanese Version1

Minori Machida, Kaho Tanobe, Steve K. Lee, Shintaro Hara, Hiroaki Kumano, Jun Tayama*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Cognitive Attentional Syndrome Scale 1 Revised (CAS-1R) is a 10-item self-report measure designed to assess dysfunctional metacognition, a transdiagnostic predictor of psychological disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, major depression disorder). Dysfunctional metacognition is classified into “cognitive attentional syndrome” and “metacognitive beliefs,” and the latter in turn into negative and positive beliefs. We translated the CAS-1R into Japanese (CAS-1R-J) and examined its reliability and validity in a Japanese community sample. We recruited 552 participants via the Internet and received responses from 552 individuals (Time 1) and 112 individuals (Time 2). Of these, the data of 87 individuals were used to examine test–retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure (three-factor model) of the CAS-1R-J was appropriate. Each subscale showed good internal consistency. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed discriminant and incremental validity for anxiety and depressive symptoms, meaning the CAS-1R-J is valid to assess state cognitive attentional syndrome and metacognitive beliefs among Japanese individuals.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJapanese Psychological Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • cognitive attentional syndrome
  • metacognitive beliefs
  • psychometric properties
  • reliability
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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