Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale

Isa Okajima*, Shun Nakajima, Mina Kobayashi, Yuichi Inoue

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Citations (Scopus)


Aim The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-J). Methods The AIS-J was created using a back-translation design. A total of 477 outpatients with chronic insomnia and 163 individuals from the general community were recruited. Participants were asked to complete the AIS-J along with two other insomnia scales - Japanese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index. Results The AIS-J consisted of a two-factor structure: 'nocturnal sleep problem' (items 1-5) and 'daytime dysfunction' (items 6-8). Internal consistencycoefficients ranged from 0.78 to 0.88. Correlations between the AIS-J and the aforementioned authorized scales were 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. Scores on the AIS-J were significantly higher for the insomnia group than for the control group. The AIS-J cut-off value for identifying pathological insomnia was estimated at 6 points or more, and the AIS-J-nocturnal cut-off value was estimated at 4 points or more. Conclusions The AIS-J has sufficient validity and diagnostic utility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-425
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sept
Externally publishedYes


  • Athens Insomnia Scale
  • insomnia
  • Japanese
  • reliability
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuroscience(all)


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