Development of 2 cm-square Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes for high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection

R. Sato, Jun Kataoka, Y. Kanai, Y. Ishikawa, N. Kawabata, T. Ikagawa, T. Saito, Y. Kuramoto, N. Kawai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have attracted considerable attention in various field of experimental physics, but their uses are still limited in only a few experiments, possibly due to their small surface areas. Here, we report the development of the large-area (∼20mm square) APDs, for future applications to high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection. We have made two prototypes of reverse-type APDs based on different concepts, one consists of a 2×2 array of 10×10mm2 pixels (APD1) and the other is a monolithic pixel of 19×19mm2 size (APD2) to achieve a large effective area. By comparing the dark current and gain characteristics at room temperature (+20°C) and lightly cooled environment (-20°C), we quantitatively discussed the origin of predominant noise source at different temperatures. As a performance demonstration of newly developed APDs, we made a scintillation γ-ray detector consisting of a 20×20×5mm3 CsI(Tl) crystal and a 2 cm-square APD. The best FWHM energy resolution of 5.5±0.2% were obtained for 662keVγ-rays at room temperature. Similarly, the best FWHM energy resolution of 8.5±0.2% were obtained for 122 keV γ-rays at lightly cooled environment. We showed that the minimum detectable energy for scintillation light was 15 keV at 20°C and less than 5 keV at -20°C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-542
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume556
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jan 15
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Avalanche photodiodes
avalanches
photodiodes
rays
X rays
high resolution
Scintillation
Full width at half maximum
x rays
scintillation
Pixels
pixels
Dark currents
room temperature
dark current
Temperature
energy
Demonstrations
Physics
prototypes

Keywords

  • γ-rays
  • Avalanche photodiode
  • Scintillation detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Development of 2 cm-square Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes for high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection. / Sato, R.; Kataoka, Jun; Kanai, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawabata, N.; Ikagawa, T.; Saito, T.; Kuramoto, Y.; Kawai, N.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 556, No. 2, 15.01.2006, p. 535-542.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c7880987e77a40448d93051276136f27,
title = "Development of 2 cm-square Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes for high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection",
abstract = "The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have attracted considerable attention in various field of experimental physics, but their uses are still limited in only a few experiments, possibly due to their small surface areas. Here, we report the development of the large-area (∼20mm square) APDs, for future applications to high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection. We have made two prototypes of reverse-type APDs based on different concepts, one consists of a 2×2 array of 10×10mm2 pixels (APD1) and the other is a monolithic pixel of 19×19mm2 size (APD2) to achieve a large effective area. By comparing the dark current and gain characteristics at room temperature (+20°C) and lightly cooled environment (-20°C), we quantitatively discussed the origin of predominant noise source at different temperatures. As a performance demonstration of newly developed APDs, we made a scintillation γ-ray detector consisting of a 20×20×5mm3 CsI(Tl) crystal and a 2 cm-square APD. The best FWHM energy resolution of 5.5±0.2{\%} were obtained for 662keVγ-rays at room temperature. Similarly, the best FWHM energy resolution of 8.5±0.2{\%} were obtained for 122 keV γ-rays at lightly cooled environment. We showed that the minimum detectable energy for scintillation light was 15 keV at 20°C and less than 5 keV at -20°C.",
keywords = "γ-rays, Avalanche photodiode, Scintillation detection",
author = "R. Sato and Jun Kataoka and Y. Kanai and Y. Ishikawa and N. Kawabata and T. Ikagawa and T. Saito and Y. Kuramoto and N. Kawai",
year = "2006",
month = "1",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.nima.2005.11.050",
language = "English",
volume = "556",
pages = "535--542",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment",
issn = "0168-9002",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of 2 cm-square Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes for high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection

AU - Sato, R.

AU - Kataoka, Jun

AU - Kanai, Y.

AU - Ishikawa, Y.

AU - Kawabata, N.

AU - Ikagawa, T.

AU - Saito, T.

AU - Kuramoto, Y.

AU - Kawai, N.

PY - 2006/1/15

Y1 - 2006/1/15

N2 - The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have attracted considerable attention in various field of experimental physics, but their uses are still limited in only a few experiments, possibly due to their small surface areas. Here, we report the development of the large-area (∼20mm square) APDs, for future applications to high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection. We have made two prototypes of reverse-type APDs based on different concepts, one consists of a 2×2 array of 10×10mm2 pixels (APD1) and the other is a monolithic pixel of 19×19mm2 size (APD2) to achieve a large effective area. By comparing the dark current and gain characteristics at room temperature (+20°C) and lightly cooled environment (-20°C), we quantitatively discussed the origin of predominant noise source at different temperatures. As a performance demonstration of newly developed APDs, we made a scintillation γ-ray detector consisting of a 20×20×5mm3 CsI(Tl) crystal and a 2 cm-square APD. The best FWHM energy resolution of 5.5±0.2% were obtained for 662keVγ-rays at room temperature. Similarly, the best FWHM energy resolution of 8.5±0.2% were obtained for 122 keV γ-rays at lightly cooled environment. We showed that the minimum detectable energy for scintillation light was 15 keV at 20°C and less than 5 keV at -20°C.

AB - The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have attracted considerable attention in various field of experimental physics, but their uses are still limited in only a few experiments, possibly due to their small surface areas. Here, we report the development of the large-area (∼20mm square) APDs, for future applications to high-resolution X-rays and γ-rays detection. We have made two prototypes of reverse-type APDs based on different concepts, one consists of a 2×2 array of 10×10mm2 pixels (APD1) and the other is a monolithic pixel of 19×19mm2 size (APD2) to achieve a large effective area. By comparing the dark current and gain characteristics at room temperature (+20°C) and lightly cooled environment (-20°C), we quantitatively discussed the origin of predominant noise source at different temperatures. As a performance demonstration of newly developed APDs, we made a scintillation γ-ray detector consisting of a 20×20×5mm3 CsI(Tl) crystal and a 2 cm-square APD. The best FWHM energy resolution of 5.5±0.2% were obtained for 662keVγ-rays at room temperature. Similarly, the best FWHM energy resolution of 8.5±0.2% were obtained for 122 keV γ-rays at lightly cooled environment. We showed that the minimum detectable energy for scintillation light was 15 keV at 20°C and less than 5 keV at -20°C.

KW - γ-rays

KW - Avalanche photodiode

KW - Scintillation detection

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=29444448415&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=29444448415&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2005.11.050

DO - 10.1016/j.nima.2005.11.050

M3 - Article

VL - 556

SP - 535

EP - 542

JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

SN - 0168-9002

IS - 2

ER -