Development of a MPPC-based DOI-PET module with submillimeter 3-D resolution

Aya Kishimoto, Jun Kataoka, Takuya Kato, Takamasa Miura, Takeshi Nakamori, Kei Kamada, Shigeyuki Nakamura, Kenichi Sato, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Kazuhisa Yamamura, Seiichi Yamamoto

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    We are proposing a novel design for a module with depth of interaction (DOI) capability for gamma rays by measuring the pulse-height ratio of double-sided Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) coupled at both ends of a scintillation crystal block. Thanks to newly developed monolithic MPPC arrays consisting of 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable package, the module is very thin and compact, thereby enabling less dead space between each module when arranged into a fully designed gantry. To demonstrate our concept of a DOI measuring technique, we first made a 1-D crystal array consisting of five Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) cubic crystals measuring 3×3×3 mm3 in size, separated by a layer of air. When the light signals output from both ends are read with the MPPCs, the position of each crystal is clearly distinguished with a spatial uncertainty of 0.48±0.03 mm. For 3-D measurements, we then fabricated three different type arrays: [A] 4×4×4 matrix of 3×3×3 mm3 pixels, [B] 5×5×5 matrix of 2×2×2 mm 3 pixels, and [C] 10×10×10 matrix of 1×1×1 mm3 pixels, with each pixel divided by a BaSO4 reflector in the 2-D direction and by a layer of air in the DOI direction. We demonstrated that the 3-D position of each Ce:GAGG pixel was clearly distinguished when illuminated by 662 keV gamma rays uniformly. Average energy resolutions of 9.8±0.8 %, 9.8±0.9 %, and 13.2±1.7 % were obtained for types A, B and C, respectively. These results suggest that our proposed method is simple and offers promise in achieving 1 mm 3-D spatial resolution for future medical imaging, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET).

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record
    Number of pages6
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    Event2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, NSS/MIC 2012 - Anaheim, CA
    Duration: 2012 Oct 292012 Nov 3


    Other2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, NSS/MIC 2012
    CityAnaheim, CA


    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Radiation
    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

    Cite this

    Kishimoto, A., Kataoka, J., Kato, T., Miura, T., Nakamori, T., Kamada, K., Nakamura, S., Sato, K., Ishikawa, Y., Yamamura, K., & Yamamoto, S. (2012). Development of a MPPC-based DOI-PET module with submillimeter 3-D resolution. In IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (pp. 3128-3133). [6551714]