Development of multimodal presentation markup language MPML-HR for humanoid robots and its psychological evaluation

Yoshitaka Nishimura, Kazutaka Kushida, Hiroshi Dohi, Mitsuru Ishizuka, Johane Takeuchi, Mikio Nakano, Hiroshi Tsujino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


Animated agents that act and speak as attendants to guests on shopping web sites are becoming increasingly popular. Inspired by this development, we propose a new method of presentation using a humanoid robot. Humanoid presentations are effective in a real environment because they can move and look around at the audience similar to a human presenter. We developed a simple script language for multimodal presentations by a humanoid robot called MPML-HR, which is a descendant of the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language (MPML) originally developed for animated agents. MPML-HR allows many non-specialists to easily write multimodal presentations for a humanoid robot. We further evaluated humanoid robots' presentation ability using MPML-HR to find the difference in audience impressions between the humanoid robot and the animated agent. Psychological evaluation was conducted to compare the impressions of a humanoid robot's presentation with an animated agent's presentation. Using the Semantic Differential (SD) method and direct questioning, we measured the difference in audience impressions between an animated agent and a humanoid robot.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Humanoid Robotics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Mar
Externally publishedYes



  • Humanoid robot
  • Multimodal presentation
  • Script language
  • SD method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Mechanical Engineering

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