Development of Oxidation Sources in Preparation of High-Tc Oxide Superconductor Thin Films Using the Molecular Beam Epitaxy Method

Hidehiko Nonaka, Shingo Ichimura, Takashi Shimizu, Kazuo Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


: Film preparation of oxide superconductors, mainly of the 1-2-3 (RBa2Cu3Ox) and Bi-containing (Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O) systems, by evaporation of either metals or metal compounds by low pressure is summarized, with a particular focus on the development of oxidation sources essential to the technique. Oxidizing reagents that enable the oxidation of metal evaporates to take place in high (0.1 to 10-3Pa) or even ultra-high (<10-5Pa) vacuum are summarized using the experiments of those who tried to apply the molecular beam epitaxy method to atomically controlled fabrication of thin films of the material, especially for device processing. The evaporation in various kinds of oxidizing atmosphere, including the simple method of in situ annealing of the metal layers in oxygen to the more advanced in situ preparation of the films with strong oxidizing reagents such as atomic oxygen, ozone, nitric oxide, etc. along with the thermochemistry of the oxidation of metals by low pressure with these reagents is reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-338
Number of pages54
JournalCritical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Jan
Externally publishedYes


  • molecular epitaxy
  • oxidation
  • oxide superconductor films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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