Development of the positive automatic thoughts list (PAL)

Satoko Shiraishi*, Fusako Koshikawa, Masahiro Nankai, Tomonori Domyo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The present study developed and evaluated the Positive Automatic Thoughts List (PAL) to explore the roles and function of self-talk in a Japanese population in positive situations. In Study 1, 22 items were chosen to construct the PAL. Five factors were identified, I . Expressions of Positive Emotion, II. Positive Expectations of Future and Self, III. Positive Self-Evaluation, IV. Having Social Support, and V. Hope for Maintaining Positive Mood. All these factors had high degrees of internal consistency. Factors I and V have never been identified in previous studies, these factors may characterized Japanese positive automatic thoughts. In Study 2, the concurrent validity of the PAL was examined. The results showed that the PAL total scores were significantly correlated with the Self-rating Depression Scale (r= - .29) and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (Positive: r=A6, Negative: r= - .16). Study 3 confirmed the clinical validity of the PAL, discriminating between healthy undergraduates and depressed outpatients. We discussed that Factor I could be closely related to the increase of positive affect and to the maintenance of depressive states.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-259
Number of pages8
JournalShinrigaku Kenkyu
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Aug


  • Depression
  • Positive automatic thoughts
  • Positive emotions
  • Scales

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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